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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List some effects of pleomorphism (7):
Less polarity, Hyperchromatic nuclei, Irregular mitotic figures, increased N/C ratio, Nuclear piling up, Change in function (secretion changes), production of PTH-rP
What is PTH-rP?
Parathyroid Hormone-related Peptide
What is the effect of elevated PTH-rP?
More bone fractures result b/c this hormone causes decalcification.
What is the hallmark feature of malignant carcinomas?
They're invasive (metastatic).
What does anaplasia mean?
"Without form."
What two cellular adaptations do you typically observe after physical trauma?
Hyperplasia & Metaplasia.
What cellular adaptation will be found usually after mutation?
Carcinoma in situ: how many mutations?
Just one mutation so far.
What's the theory called that states that cancer requires at least two mutations to develop?
Knudsen Two-Hit Theory
Congenital genetic mutations: need at least ____ mutation(s) to develop carcinoma?
Congenital + 1 mutation = cancer
Sporadic genetic mutaions: need at least ____ mutation(s) to develop carcinoma?
At least 2 sporadic mutations needed to = cancer.
Modern cancer drugs are being developed to target ____ and cut off tumor nutrient supply.
VEGF inhibition halts angiogenesis.
Carcinomas prefer to metastasize in:
Lymph vessels.
Sarcomas prefer to metastasize:
Via hematogenous metastasis.
Describe "Cavity Seeding," please.
Multiple tumors in one organ (considered to be metastasis).
Tumor grading/classification is based upon what three things?
Size, Presence in lymph nodes, & metastasis.
List four genes affected by mutation that lead to cancer:
Protooncogenes, Tumor suppressors (e.g. p53), Apoptosis mediators (e.g. BLC-2), & DNA repair genes (e.g. BRCA-1, BRCA-2, & HER-2).
Name two tumor suppressors:
p53 & pRB
What is BCL-2?
A mediator of apoptosis
List 3 DNA repair genes:
BRCA-1, BRCA-2, & HER-1
Provide two examples of dietary carcinogens:
Aflatoxin B1 & Nitrosamines/Amides
Where does Aflatoxin B1 come from?
Aspergillus flavus, commonly found in tainted grain/peanuts
Where do Nitrosamines/Amides come from?
Meat refrigeration/preservation
How do polycyclic hydrocarbons cause cancer?
They intercalate between base pairs of DNA causing mutation
Alcohol + tobacco = ____?
Oral carcinoma
How does radiation cause cancer?
Radiation nicks the DNA, which after being improperly repaired causes mutation
Give two sources of cancer-causing radiation, please.
UV Radiation, and Ionizing Radiation
What is HTLV-1?
The Human T-cell Leukemia Virus
What is HPV?
The Human Papilloma Virus => cervical cancer.
What is EBV?
The Epstein-Barr Virus => Burkitt's Lymphoma => facial/abdominal tumors
What kind of cancer can Hep. B cause?
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC = liver cancer)
What is HHV-8?
Human Herpesvirus 8 => Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS lesions, as seen in AIDS, etc.)
How does dsDNA cause cancer?
dsDNA activate protooncogenes causing the formation of oncogenes
How does an RNA virus (retrovirus) cause cancer?
Inserts cDNA into a protooncogene causing the formation of oncogenes
What kind of cancer does the bacterium H. pylori cause?
Gastric carcinoma
Give 4 symptoms of cancer:
1. Febrile, 2. Anorexia, 3. Cachexia, 4. Increased lymphocyte count.
What is Telangiectasis?
Telangiectasis [end vessel dilation] = a spidery appearance of dilated capillaries on the surface of an organ.
What's the name of the drug which can treat an HER-2 mutation?
Herceptin ("personalized medicine").