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74 Cards in this Set

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What are two goals of inflammation?
Kil/Neutralize/Quarantine Damaging factors & Increase blood flow (call firemen in)
Can you see inflammation in the dead?
No.
Inflammation is ____ for healing & repair.
necessary
Inflammation is a specific response to ____ cuasative agents
non-specific
What is the first "fireman" to arrive at the scene?
PMNs
What is the typical lifespan for a PMN
8.2 hours
Acute inflammation involves ____.
PMNs & EMNs also
Chronic inflammation involves ____
Lymphocytes & Marcophages
List 4 mediators of inflammation:
Histamine, Heparin, Bradykinin, & Prostaglandin
Give the sequence of inflammation (10 steps)
1. Vasodilation, 2. Increased Vasclar Permeability, 3. Stagnation of Blood Flow, 4. Margination, 5. Rolling, 6. Adhesion, 7. Transmigration (diapedesis), 8. Chemotaxis, 9. Phagocytosis, 10. Sequelae (after effects: innocent bystanders, etc.)
These three stages of inflammation are Vascular Changes:
Vasodilation, Increased Vascular Permeability, & Stagnation of Blood flow
The stages from ____ to ____ are Cellular Level stages of inflammation:
(4) Margination to (10) Sequelae
Define "Transudate"
Fluid discharge [sudare = "to sweat"]
What's the specific gravity of blood plasma leaking through pores?
1.105 (water with a few protiens in it).
The proteins on endothelial cells responsible for allowing "rolling" are:
"Selectin Proteins"
The proteins on endothelial cells responsible for allowing "adhesion" are:
"Integrin Proteins"
Selectin proteins are present due to:
Histamine
Integrin proteins are present due to:
IL-1, TNF
The proteins aiding in transmigration are:
"PECAM Proteins"
Chemotaxis is due to:
C5a, C3a, LBT4, and toxins
Phagocytosis is mediated by:
C3b, IgM, & IgG
Define Sequelae:
The "sequel:" Events happening after an inflammatory response (Innocent bystander death, & healing).
Arachidonic Acid aka
Eicosanoids
What are two Eicosanoid Pathway Types?
LOX Pathways & COX Pathways
List 5 degranulation products:
Substnace P, Histamine, Heparin, ECF, PAF.
Which degranulation product appears first: histamine or PGD2?
Histamine release from stored vesicles. PGD2 must be synthesized.
What cells are responsible for the vascular chnages in inflammation:
Mast cells & Basophils
Define "Exudate"
Leakage of cellular material out of the lumen (present in stronger inflammatory responses)
Mild inflammation shows
Transudate
Severe inflammation shows:
Exudate
Purulent exudate is associated with what type of necrosis?
Liquefactive necrosis
Purulent exudate in the anterior chamber is called:
Hypopyon, causing Uveitis.
List 3 types of Exudate Acute Inflammation:
1. Serous, 2. Fibrinous, 3. Purulent
List 3 lesions associated with acute inflammation:
1. Abscess, 2. Cellulitis, 3. Ulcer
What are the major etiologies underlying ulceration?
Ischemia, Toxins, & Trauma
What enzymes do glucocorticoids inhibit?
Phospholipases
What enzmes are affected by COX inhibitors?
Cylcooxygenases. (NSAIDs affect them too)
What prostaglandin cuases fever?
PGE2
Name 5 ways to treat asthma:
1. H1 blocker (Benedryl), 2. Mast cell stabilizer (Cromolyn), 3. B2 agonist (Foravil), 4. Leukotriene antagonist (Singulair), Steroids (Flovent)
What pathways does Aspirin inhibit?
COX-1 & COX-2
What does a COX-1 inhibitor affect?
TXA2
What do COX-2 inhibitors affect?
PGI2 and PGD2/PGE2/PGF2
What is the only way to inhibit the LOX pathway?
Use steroids!
Name things involved with the LOX pathway:
LTB4 → chemotaxis (* inflammation), LTC4/LTD4/LTE4 (aka SRS-A) (* inflammation), Lipoxin → endogenous antagonist to LTB4/SRS-A
Give 3 IL-1/TNF activated Marophage Local effects:
Activate WBCs, Produce integrins, increase fibroblast activity (produce collagen for repair)
List 6 systemic effects of Macrophage activation:
Fever, Malaise (Punk), Anorexia (appetite loss), Cachexia (weakness), Increased acute phase ptns., Leukopoiesis.
What does DIC stand for?
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (a big clot usually causing death)
What form of inflammation is Bullous Pemphigoid?
Acute Serous Inflammation
None
Pseudomembrane is found in what manner of inflammation?
Acute Fibrinous Inflammation
Purulent (aka ____) Inflammation involves what kind of enzymes?
Purulent (aka Suppurative) Inflammation involves pyogenic enzymes (c.f. pyrogenic)
I say "bread and butter" inflammation, you say:
Fibrinous pseudomembrane.
Pyogenic enzymes are around. Etiology? "Think ____"
"Think Microbes" (e.g. Staph Aureus, Streptococcus, Gonococcus, etc.)
Purulent exudate aka ____?
Suppurative exudate
Where are abscesses commonly discovered?
In the tonsils.
I say "bread and butter" inflammation, you say:
Fibrinous pseudomembrane.
Pyogenic enzymes are around. Etiology? "Think ____"
"Think Microbes" (e.g. Staph Aureus, Streptococcus, Gonococcus, etc.)
Purulent exudate aka ____?
Suppurative exudate
Where are abscesses commonly discovered?
In the tonsils.
What is one thing that will you see in Chronic inflammation that you won't find (as much) in Acute inflammation?
Lymphadenopathy
Name 4 common etiologies associated with Chronic inflammation:
Intracelluar inflection (Virus, things escaping phagosomes), Persistent Pathogens (TB, syphilis, Fungi.), Prolonged exposure (coal, tattoo, autoimmune), Foreign Bodies (Glass, Bullets, sutures, etc.)
List 3 Persistent Pathogen Types:
TB, Syphilis, Fungi
Autoimmune disorders can be an etiology for ____ inflammation.
Chronic Inflammation.
Give some examples of Foreign Bodies, please.
Suture from surgery, Glass, Bullets, Splinters, etc.
What does the phrase "cellular involvement in chronic inflammation with macrophages" remind you of?
Epitheliod Histocytes
Name 3 cellular aspects involved in Chronic Inflammation:
Macrophages, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils
What is in the center of a granuloma?
The causative agent & some necrosis
What's the inner layer of a granuloma made of?
Activated Macrophages
What's the second layer of a granuloma made of?
Multinucleated Giant Cells
What is the outer layer of a granuloma made of?
Fibroblasts with Collagen
What substances can be found inside the first layer of a granuloma?
Lysozyme, ROS, Proteases, FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor, a cytokine), Frustrated Macrophages.
What's the #1 cause of death worldwide (not in the USA though)?
TB.
Give two characteristics of Dormant TB:
Inside Macrophages & Contagious
What two signs will be seen in the lungs with TB?
Cavitation, & Granulomas (caseating necrosis)
Granulomas require a lot of oxygen, so in the area one will commonly find:
Angiogenesis