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34 Cards in this Set

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Otitis media is caused by what bacterium?
Haemophilus influenza
None
What do you call an antibiotic biotic which targets both G+ and G- bacteria?
Broad spectrum antibiotic
What is EKC?
Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis = damages the cornea some.
What age group is typically affected by EKC?
Adults
What is PCF?
Pharyngoconjunctivitis fever = pink eye associated with sore throat and fever
What age group is typically affected by PCF?
Children
Is E. coli G+ or G-?
Gram negative (Just like Haemophillus influenza)
Gram stain is positive for:
G+ bacteria (Thick peptidoglycan, no outer CM)
Antibiotics primarily affect:
G+ bacteria (Inhibit production of thick peptidoglycan wall)
Give some examples of beta-lactam antibiotics (4):
Penicillin, Imipenem, Cephalosporin, & Clavulanate
None
What is the etymology behind "staphylococcus aureus?"
"a bunch of golden grapes." [grapes, golden]
How are bacterial infections transmitted?
Touch/respiration
List 3 ways Staph. a. evades host defense systems:
Leukotoxin (kills WBCs)/α-hemolysin (kills RBCs), Catalase: converts H2O2 → H2O + ½O2, & Coagulase: activates fibrinogen to make fibrin (clotting).
Give two ways in which Strep. p. evades host defenses:
α-hemolysin (kills RBCs) & capsule (protection)
None
What is the Hib vaccination for protecting against?
Bacterial Meningitis
None
Is H. influenza G+ or G-?
Gram negative (Just like e.coli. All other bacteria discussed were G+)
Give two ways in which H. influenza evades host defenses:
Capsule (PRP: poly-ribosyl ribitol phosphate) = helps evade host defenses (complement & phagocytosis) & Makes IgA proteases = can survive in eyes
What is adenovirus associated with?
Pink eye (viral conjunctivitis)
What does HSV (Herpes Simplex Virus) have?
A virus capsid surrounded by an amorphic nuclear membranous envelope
What is the most common cause of virus-associated blindness?
HS Keratitis = infection of epithelial cells.
What does the envelope of a VZV look like?
Circular (c.f. amorphous HSV envelope)
What virus could be responsible for anterior uveitis?
CMV
"Brush Fire" appearance:
CMV
What virus could be responsible for oral cancer?
EBV
What virus is responsible for Kapoci's sarcoma?
HHV-8
None
"Snow flake" appearance:
HS Keratitis = infection of epithelial cells.
What are the 3 phases of an HIV infection?
1. ARC, 2. Clinically Asymptomatic Phase, 3. Full-blown AIDS
What's the CD4 count during ARC?
CD4 count > 500 cells
What decreases during ARC?
CD4 count
What increases during ARC?
Immune response (CD8s, etc.)
Name one ocular manifestation of AIDS:
Cotton wool spots
What's the CD4 count to reac full-blown AIDS?
CD4 count < 200 cells
What are the two major types of viral conjunctivitis?
EKC (Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis) & PCF (Pharyngoconjunctivitis fever)
What is an adenovirus?
Adenovirus [discovered in adenoid tonsils] = a DNA virus which causes most respiratory diseases (and can lead to viral conjunctivitis).