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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is immunity?

page 49
The body's ability to recognize and remove potentially harmful chemicals and antigens.
What is an antigen?

page 49
Anything that illicits an immune response
What is an antibody?

page 49
Chemical designed to kill one type of antigen
Name the body's 3 lines of immune defense?

page 50
1) Nonspecific Resistance
2) Innate Immunity
3) Acquired Immunity
What is the function of "Nonspecific Resistance" ?
page 50
Defend against foreign or abnormal material of any type even on initial exposure.
Describe three aspects of "Innate Immunity" ?

page 50
Recognizes a variety of pathogens as foreign, even on initial exposure.

Uses non specific defenses

Triggers the slower but more specific acquired immunity
Describe three aspects of "Acquired Immunity" ?

page 50
Develops as a result of previous exposure to antigens.

Relies on specific responses mediated by individual lymphocytes to offending antigens

Repeated exposure to the same antigen triggers an immediate and enhanced response designed to prevent re-infection.
What are 3 one-word characteristics of Acquired Immunity?

page 50
What are 2 characteristics of Nonspecific Resistance ?

page 51
Resistance to invasion
Reactions to invasion
What are 4 categories of Nonspecific Resistance To Invasion?

page 51
Mechanical Barriers
Chemical Barriers
Antimicrobial Substances
Species resistance
What are 5 categories of Nonspecific Reactions To Invasion?

page 51
Natural killer cells
Others (diarehha, vomiting, sneezing)
What are the 2 types of Immunity?

page 54
Name the 5 key processes to cellular and humoral immunity.

page 54
What type of cells are involved in Cellular Immunity?

page 54
T cell
What type of cells are involved in Humoral Immunity?

page 55
Plasma Cells
Memory B cells
What is the significant difference(s) between Cellular and Humoral Immunity during the Recognition stage?

page 54-55
Cellular: T-cells recognize antigen
Humoral: B-cells recognize antigen
What is the significant difference(s) between Cellular and Humoral Immunity during the Amplification stage?

page 54-55
Cellular: T-cell multiply themselves

Humoral: B-cells divide into plasma and memory cells
What is the significant difference(s) between Cellular and Humoral Immunity during the Elimination stage?

page 54-55
Cellular: Cloned cytotoxic T cells kill antigen via phagocytosis

Humoral: Antibodies produced by plasma cells do the killing (Lysing)
What is the Neonatal period?

page 56
First 6 months of life.
When is someone considered elderly?

page 56
What are two types of Vaccination?

page 56
Active Immunity
Passive Immunity
Describe Active Immunity Vaccinations.

page 56
Weakened or dead form of antigen is introduced into body.
Describe Passive Immunity Vaccinations.

page 56
Antibodies are injected into the body.
What is Hypersensitivity Reactions?

page 57
Exaggerated or innappropriate immunie responses that can be harmful to the body.
What is Self Tolerance?

page 57
The body's ability to recognize itself and the resulting immunologic unresponsiveness to self, of an otherwise functioning immune system.
What are the 4 characteristics of Autoimmune Diseases?

page 58
Diseases that develop as a result of a breakdown of self tolerance, and the activation of self-reactive T cells.

Most often are inherited/genetic predisposition.

Thought to be caused by an environmental exposure and a cross reaction with normal tissue.

Increased incidence with age.
What is a Neoplasia?

page 63
An abnormal mass of tissue.
What is Carcinogenesis?

page 64
Cancer develops when DNA is damaged, but the cell lives to reproduce the damaged DNA.
What is meant by "Multiple Hits & Multiple Factors" in relation to Carcinogenesis?

page 64
An initial event followed by a series of promoting events.

The magic number seems to be 5
List the 4 Oncogenes & Tumor Suppressor Genes.

page 64
Tumor suppressor genes
DNA repair genes
What is a Proto-oncogene?

page 64
The gene that triggers mitosis in a cell. When stressed becomes an oncogene.
What is an Oncogene?

page 64
Genes found in tumor cells whose activation is associated with the initial and continuing conversion of normal cells to cancer cells.
What is a Tumor suppressor gene?

page 64
Oppose proto-oncogenes and limit cell proliferation. Mutations in these genes allow neoplasms to proliferate.
What is a DNA repair gene?

page 64
Repair non lethal damage in other genes. Damage to these genes allows mutations to be passed on to cell progeny.
What are 3 Carcinogenic Agents?

page 65
What is metastasis?

page 66
Travelling through the blood/body.
What are the gross features of a Benign tumor?

page 66
Smooth surface with a capsule
Slow growth rate
Rarely fatal
Small to very large
What are the gross features of a malignant tumor?

page 66
Irregular surface with no capsule
Rapid growth rate
Usually fatal if untreated
Small to large
What are the microscopic features of a benign tumor?

page 66
Growth by compression of surroundings
Highly differentiated resembling tissue of origin
Cells similar to normal resembling one another
No metastasis
What are the microscopic features of a malignant tumor?

page 66
Growth by invasion of surroundings.
Poorly differentiated.
Cells dissimilar with abnormalities
Metastasis to distant sites
Name the 4 types of Neoplasia.

page 67
Describe the 12 steps of the Metastatic Process.

page 68
1) Clonal expansion, growth, diversification and angigenesis.
2) Metastatic subclone
3) Adhesion to and invasion of basement membrane.
4) Passage through extracellular matrix
5) Intravasation
6) Interaction with host lymphoid cells
7) Tumor cell embolus
8) Adhesion to basement membrane
9) Extravasation
10) Metastatic tumor
11) Angiogenesis
12) Growth
What are 3 ways in which malignant neoplasms metastasize.

page 68
Seeding of cancers (spreads through body cavity)

Lymphatic spread

Hematogenous spread
What is Cachexia?

page 71
Unhealthy weight loss