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38 Cards in this Set

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Definition of edema
The presence of excessive fluid n the tissues or body cavities.
Definition of effusion
Fluids in cavities
Anasarca
Very severe generalized edema, especially subcutaneous tissue (Total body edema)
Dependent edema
Edema distributed by gravity
Pitting edema
Finger pressure leaves a depression
Transudate
Fluid of low protein content
Exudate
Fluid of high protein content
Ascites
Excessive peritoneal fluid
Hydrothorax
Excessive pleural fluid
Hydrarthrosis
Excessive joint fluid
Four main causes of edema
1. Increased hydrostatic pressure in blood capillaries
2. Decreased oncotic pressure
3. Increased permeability
4. Lymphatic obstruction
Sites of edema
1. subcutaneous tissue
2. ankles
3. lung
4. brain
Morphological change due to edema
Gross: tissue or organ swelling
Histology: separation of tissue element by eosinophilic material
Hyperemia
Increased blood volume in the vascular space of the organ involved.
Morphology: vascular engorgement
Two types of hyperemia
Active hyperemia: increased inflow
Passive hyperemia: decreased outflow
Hemorrhage
Flow of blood out of the vascular compartment
Petechiae
Minute hemorrhages in the skin, mucus membranes or serosal surfaces
Purpura
Slightly larger hemorrahages of surfaces than petechiae
Ecchymosis
Large hemorrhages of surface

"Bruise"
Hematoma
Pool of extravascular blood trapped in the tissue
Hemoptysis
Coughing up blood arising from larynx, trachea, bronchi or lung
Hematemesis
Vomiting blood
Melena
Evacuation of tar-like stools of altered blood
Indicate blood in GI
Causes of hemorrhage
Local: trauma, infectious, degenerative, neoplasia
General: hemorrhagic diathesis
Anemia
Reduction in number and/or volume of erythrocytes per unit volume of blood
Causes of anemia
1. decreased production/ increased loss of RBC
2. rapid blood loss (internal or external hemorrhage)
What are the consequences of anemia?
Pallor
Reduced oxygen transport
Ischemia
A temporary deficiency of blood flow (partial or complete) to an organ or tissue.
Result in hypoxia or anoxia of tissue
Infarct
a focus of necrosis, usually coagulative necrosis, resulting from ischemia/ stenosis so severe that the tissue can't survive
Morphology of hyperemia
1. Organ or tissue appear redder
2. Blood remain within the vessel
3. Vessels dilated, full of RBCs, but not damaged
4. Edema is not required but may be part of it
Examples of physiological hyperemia and pathological hyperemia
1. physiological - blushing
2. pathological - sunburn
Types of infarct
1. anemic, "white," "pale
2. hemorrhagic, "red"
Morphology
1. muscle necrosis
2. neutrophil infiltration
3. macrophaes
4. fibroblasts and capillaries
5. collagen
Infarcts are often wedge-shaped
What is reperfusion injury?
Causing more tissue damage to the surrounding area when ischemia is resolved
Definition of heart failure
Failure of pump function of heart
Two types of pathophysiology of heart failture
1. "backward" failure- failure to pump ot veins (congestive heart failure)
2. "forward" failure- failure to pump enough blood to meet needs of body
True or false:
Congestive heart failure can be right-sided, left-sided or both.
True
True or false:
Plueral effusions can be manifestations of only left-sided heart failure
False. It can be of both left- or right-sided failure.