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252 Cards in this Set

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Hydrocephalus
dilation of ventricles caused by obstruction
CSF builds up and causes pressure atrophy
Congenital: Dogs
Acquired: secondary to neoplasia or inflammation
Porencephaly
formation of fluid filled cavity in cerebrum
Caused by Necrosis
Viral Infection (BVD (cows), Bluetongue, Border disease (sheep)
Hydranencephaly
more severe form of porencephaly
most of white matter is lost, lateral ventricles fil space
Cu def, border disease, blue tongue (sheep)
BVD (cow)
Cerebellar Hypoplasia
Hypoplasia: failure of cerebella to develop to normal size
Inutero infections: BVD cows
panleukopenia- cats
Abiotrophy
atrophy of cerebellum after it gets to be normal size
most common in dogs
Copper deficiency
swayback: in sheep, necrosis of white matter and hydranencephaly
axonal degeneration: occurs several weeks after birth in sheep
hypomyelinogenesis
failure of myelin to develop
sheep: hairy shakers
inherited in dogs and pigs
oligodendrocytes are replaced by fat
spina bifida
failure of neural tube to close during development
affected animals have open areas in spine
meningocele
meninges are exposed (spin bifid a)
meningomyelocele
spinal cord is exposed (spina bifida)
hydromyelia
dilation of central canal of spinal cord
syringomyelia
formation of syrinx/cavity within the cord
edema
not seen grossly
leads to flattening of gyri
cerebellum forced into foramen magnum (narrows)
vasogenic edema
intercellular, more common
often focal, seen with neoplasia, trauma, inflammation
from fluid that leads out of vessels
cytotoxic edema
intracellular
toxicity from salt, lead
leads to neuronal necrosis
seen secondary to liver disease
infarcts (stroke)
arterial supply to brain has reduction in luminal diameter
brain sensitive to ischemia
-areas appear pale tan to yellow and swollen
-hemorrhagic areas are red
Feline ischemic encephalopathy
unknown cause in cats produce areas of infects
cats have ataxia, seizures, blindness, behavioral changes
emboli
cause infarcts
bacterial emboli in cases of septicemia
fibrocartilaginous emboli from disc herniation in dogs, pigs
hemorrhage and contusion
difficult to distinguish from infarct
trauma is cause
seen in necrosis or infarction from c. perfrinens D in sheep
Lysosomal Storage diseases
inherited diseases
-caused by deficiency of enzyme
-affects all species
-autosomal recessive disease in homozygotes
-can be acquired by poison plants
clinical signs: ataxia, incoordination, tremors, death
no gross lesions in brain
classified: lipidoses, mucopolysaccharidoses, glycoproteinoses
transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
group of neurologic diseases
-clear vacuoles form within neurons
-caused by prions
-infection when animal is young
-scrapie in sheep, BSE in cows
chromatolysis
Dispersion of nissil substance within neurons
cytoplasm looks like ground glass
-occurs when axon is damaged
-equine motor neuron disease involves chromatolysis
Compression (spine)
-degeneratoin of both myelin and axons
-marcophages are seen in empty axon sheaths
-herniation of intervertebral discs is most common cause
-occurs in chondrodystrophic breeds
-posterior paralysis suddenly
wobbler in horses
-cervical vertebra may be malformed
toxins (degenerative lesion of spine)
organophophates
-inhiit acetylcholinesterase
-cause delayed neurotoxicity weeks after exposure
copper deficiency in sheep
degenerative myelopathy
seen in young horses most commonly
-from 6 mo to 2 years in all spp
-all levels of spinal cord have wallerian degeneration
Necrosis of Spinal Cord- Polioencephalomalacia
Necrosis associated with gray matter softening and edema
-necrosis of cerebral cortical gray matter
Deficiency of Thiamine in ruminants
polioencephalomalacia
-increased levels of thiamin's from high grain diet
-cattle are blind and have paresis
-show teeth grinding
-euthanize
Salt poisoning in pigs
usually in animals deprived of water
causes cytotoxic edema and polioencephalomalacia
lead toxicity in ruminants
polioencephalomalacia
-from licking old batteries
-excitable animals that are hyperactive
-can have seizures
-blind and stagger, can have no clinical signs
hypoxia and ischemia
due to prolonged seizures and anesthesia
-kills cerebral cortex, hippocampus and pukinje cells
-in foals, hypoxia during birth leads to dummy foal
leukoencephalomalacia
only disease specific to white matter
-horses following ingestion of moldy corn infected with fusarum fungus
fungus produces fumonisin b toxin
-horses stagger, are weak, circle, depressed, and die
causes necrosis
clostridium perfringens D (necrosis)
animals with pulpy kidney that survive
-develop secondary to neuronal necrosis
-necrosis and hemorrhage occur in basal ganglia
-blood vessels are damaged
-causes CNS hemorrhage and contusion and pulpy kidney in sheep
equine motor neuron disease
(necrosis)
chromatolysis plus neuronal degeneration in the ventral horns of spinal cord
-respons to vitamin e
poliomyelomalacia
pigs
-necrosis of ventral horns in cervical and lumbar spine
caused by selenium toxicity
affected pigs have posterior paralysis and quadriplegia
bacteria
inflammation of nervous system
typically produce meningitis
-see lots of neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, macros
-meningoencephalitis: if neuropil is involved
hematogenous
listeria in ruminants , damage to C8-circle, C7- unilateral drooping
histophilus somni: feedlot cattle
Viral infection of nervous system
no gross lesions
-perivascular cuffing
-chromatolysis and necosis
-glial nodules
rabies
-foxes/skunks
-eosinophilic intracytoplasmic accumulations of virus called negri bodies
carnivores: few negris, lots of inflammation
ruminants: show little inflammation, lots of negi bodies
pseudorabies
herpesvirus infection of pigs
-highly contagious endemic with no signs
-young pigs, severe signs and death, old- respiratory signs
equine viral encephalitis
arbovirus in horses
-transmitted by mosquitos
-reservoir is wild birds,
horses ,and humans- dead end host
-horses are drowsy, blind and my circle, death in 2 days
retrovirus
sheep and goats
-demyelination with perviscular cuffs
produces encephalitis in young kids arthritis in goats
-lesiosn are in spinal cord
-lead to paralysis and death
-similar disease in sheep- visna
canine distemper
common in dogs
-caused by morbillivirus
-neurological disease
-produces neuronal necrosis in gray matter, white matter demyelination
repetitive contraction of masseter muscle
equine herpesvirus 1
neurologic disease and pneumonia
vasculitis with hemorrhage in spinal cord and brain
-paresis, ataxic and recumbant
west nile virus
flvivirus affects any app
-paresis and paralysis
-poliomyelitis and encephalitis
zoonotic and fatal
fungi
granulomatous or pyogranulomatous inflammation
-cryptococcus: in cats in most important
-yeast infection enters thru nasal cavity goes to brain
-causes meningitis or meningoencephalitis
parasites
-multifocal inflammation in white and grey matter
-eosinophil infiltration
-EPM-opposum, sarcocystis neurona
-paresis and paralysis
granulomatous meningoencephalitis
common in dogs
-white matter is infiltrated with cuffs of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macros
-profound and progressive or mid
-eventually fatal
cauda equina neuritis
horses
-nerves of caudal equine
-nerves are thick gray or brown
-leads to granulomatous inflammation
-horses are incontinent with perineal anesthesia and tail paralysis
-can respond to corticosteroids
-not fatal, but usually euthanize
glial cell tumors
grey, tan , white and compress adjacent tissue
-astrocytoma: 2nd most common CNS tumor
-most common in brachycephalic dogs
-located in cerebral cortex
-oligodendroglioma are rare
choroid plexus tumor
rare, occur only in ventricles
-usually in 4th
-can be adenoma or adenocarcinoma
-vascular and red
meningioma
most common tumor of CNS
-dogs (ventral)
-cats (dorsal)
-firm, coarse, tan mass on surface of brain
signs related to compression of nervous tissue
ependymoma
benign or malignant
-rare tumor within the ventricle
-white or tan
neuroblasoma and medulloblastoma
same tumor
-arise from primitive neurons
-young animals in medulla
-well demarcated gray to pink
peripheral nerve sheath tumor
uncommon
-in PNS in dog
-usually benign in the skin or brachial plexus
-can be in cows as multiple masses in intrathoracic nerves
-firm and white
cholesterol granuloma
in horses
cholesterol in lateral vetricle
-incidental finding
-can cause hydrocephalus
dural ossification
formation of mineralized plaques in dura of old dogs that form bone
-incidental
-some dogs are painful in spine
-appear on radiographs
cleft palate
hereditary defect where hard palate fails to close completely
occurs in any species
vesicular diseases
viral diseases of large animals
-vesicles inmoth and on coronet
-foot and mouth: pigs, cows, sheep
-vesicular stomatitis: pigs, cattle, horses
vesicular exanthema: calcivirus of pigs
Feline calci virus
produces vesicles that quickly rupture into ulcers
-upper respiratory disease of cats
herpes B virus
rhesus monkeys: carrier
non-rhesus: fatal
Pemphigus
vesicles ulcers in oral cavity and skin of dogs and cats
-autoimmune disease
pemphigus vulgaris
antibodies directed towards keratinocytes
-affects skin
bullous pemphigoid
antibodies against basement membrane
-subepidermal lesion
bovine biral diarrhea
pestivirus of cows
-ulcers in oral cavity, esophagus, and small intestine
-ulcers over peyer's patches
malignant catarrhal fever
gamma herpes virus of cows
-carried by wildebeest, and sheep
-signs similar to BVD
-plus copious amounts of nasal discharge
bluetongue
orbivirus of sheep
-transmitted by insects
-ulcers in mouth, hemorrhages in forestomach, coronet
-tongue swells with venous blood and looks blue
uremia
accumulation of toxins in blood in dogs and cats
-due to renal failure
-ulcers produced on tongue/stomach
eosinophilic granuloma complex
hypersensitivity reaction in dogs and cats
-likely due to parasites
-produces ulcers in mouth and skin
-can be treated with steroids
aeromonas
bacterial infection of fish and reptiles
-causes necrosis and hemorrhage in the mouth and other organs
contagious ecthyma
pox virus of sheep and goats
-crusty lesions on lips, face, feet, udder
-self-limiting but painful
bovine papular stomatitis
parapox virus of cow
-discrete circular lightly raised lesions in mouth and esophagus
-center of ulcer is raised
-incidental
Fusobacterium necrophorum
bacterial infection of cattle
-secondary to oral trauma
-ulcers and caseous proliferative lesions in mouth
lumpy jaw
actinomyces infection
-secondary to oral trauma
wodden tongue
actinobacillus infection in cows
-secondary to oral trauma
gingival hyperplasia
proliferation of gingival in response to chronic periodontal disease
malignant neoplasia
melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma
melanoma
horse, pig, dog, cat
-tumor of melanocytes
-skin of all spp, oral cavity of dog
-90% malignant
-pigmented or non-pigmented
squamous cell carcinoma
tumor of squamous epithelium in oral cavity and skin
-common tumor of cat tongue
-solitary nodule
-slow to metastasize
-occurs in tonsil of dogs, more malignant
fibrosarcoma
dogs and cats
-tumor of fibroblasts in subcutis of cats, oral cavity of dogs
-solitary nodule
-moderate rate of metastasis
benign neoplasia
epulis, papilloma, tooth germ tumors
Epulis
tumor of periodontal ligament in dogs
Papilloma
virus causes warts on skin and in rumen of cows
oral cavity of dogs
tooth germ tumors
rare in dogs, cat, cow
-ameloblastoma: locally extensive to bone
odontomas: look like teeth, untreatable, euthanasia
enamel hypoplasia
failure to form enamel on teeth
-dentin is exposed
-teeth are chipped, misshapen and brown
-can be caused by exposure to distemper while teeth is developing or high levels of fluorine (cows)
-bones are prone to fracture
excessive tartar buildup
can lead to periodontal disease and eventual tooth loss
mucocele
cysts that forms when a salivary duct ruptures and saliva accumulates in adjacent soft tissue
-induces inflammatory response
-occur in submandibular oral cavity
ranula
mucocele in the abase of the tongue caused by rupture of the sublingual salivary gland
sialoadentitis
inflammation of salivary gland caused by coronavirus in rat
choke
happens in horses fed dry coarse feed (apples)
esophagus can ulcerate producing annular ulcers
avian pox
viral infection
-produces white/yellow caseous plaques on mucosa of the oral cavity, crop and esophagus
hypervitaminosis A
causes keratinization of the esophagus and internal glands
candida
opportunistic yeast infection in immunocompromised animals
trichomonas
protozoan infection in the crop and esophagus in birds, pigeons
megaesophagus
marked dilation of the esophagus
-usually seen with right persistent aortic arch
-may develop secondary to myasthenia gravis
edema of stomach and intestinal wall
of the stomach and intestinal wall happens in animals with hypoproteinemia
-wall looks gelatinous
-e.coli in pigs
ulcers of the cardia
ulcers within the esophageal portion of stomach in pigs
-may be ration related
-ulcer can lead to fatal bleeding and sudden death
other ulcers
stress in all spp
-steroids and NSAIDS - common in horses
-heavy metals (cattle)
-uremia in dogs
bloat-horse
caused by gas dissension
-most common in horses that engorge on grain
-causes lactic acidosis and is CV failure
-shock, death or stomach rupture occurs
bloat-cows
lactic acid forms ulcers which erode vessels
-secondary infection by fungi or fusoacterium
-ingestion of legumes with high protein causes frothy bloat
bloat line
distinguishes postmortum bloat from pre-mortem bloat
bloat-dog
volvulus typically in deep chested dogs
-aerophagia (ingestion of air) or food that expands after eating cause
displaced abomasum
cattle- occurs within several weeks of parturition
abomasum moves to left or right and fills with gas
stomach rupture
caused in horses by bloat or colic from intestinal blockage
stomach bots
in horses
-gastrophilus larve cause ulcers at margo plicatus
-incidental finding
bezoars
phytobezoars (plant balls)
trichobezoars (hair balls)
hyperplasia of gastric mucosa
response to PARASITES
-ostertagia in cattle
-trichostongylus in horses
eosinophilic gastroenteritis
rare disease in dogs
-similar to carcinoma grossly
-stomach is infiltrated with eosinophils and fibrosis
-due to an allergic reaction
neoplasia of the stomach
all tumors of stomach lining are malignant
-gastric carcinoma: highly malignant tumor of dogs, thickening and fibrosis of stomach wall, large ulcer in the mucosa
-squamous cell carcinoma: horses, ulcerated fibrous mass in nonglandular stomach, metastasis occurs with clinical signs
-lymphoma: dogs and cats, mass of homogenous tan tissue, no fibrosis
-leioyoma: tumor of submucosa (not malignant) , discrete, well-deliniated tan nodule
papilloma
in rumen of cows
-occur as white, wart-like growths
-caused by papilloma virus, incidental
salmonella
effects the small intestine in cattle:
-large intestine of horses, pigs
-produces ulcerative, fibrinous, and hemorrhagic enteritis
amoebas
ulcerative enteritis in small intestine of reptiles
-entamoeba is most common
ulcerative enteritis in small intestine
occurs in young birds
-caused by clostridium coliseum
-produces discrete culcers, multifocal yellow foci in liver
necrotic enteritis in small intestine
disease of chickens
-caused by clostridium perfringens A
-produces diffuse necrosis with a fibrinonecrotic pseudomembrane
hemorrhage of small intestine
free blood in lumen
hemorrhage within the wall
hemorrhage of small intestine of dogs and cats
occurs secondary to many things (infection, neoplasia,)
-intestine is diffusely hemorrhagic
gall bladder can be affected
small intestine hemorrhage of ruminatns
heavy metal toxicosis
-arsenic, mercury)
parvovirus of dogs and cats
small intestine hemorrhage of dogs and cats
-hemorrhagic enteritis, in dogs, destroys crypt cells
cats- panleukopenia, damages crypts but does not cause hemorrhage
anticoagulative toxicosis
ingestion of rodenticides
affects: LI, gall bladder
cause hemorrhage to small intestine
Hookworms
in dogs nematodes
visible grossly
cause hemorrhage to small intestine
clostridium perfingens A and C
large animals in first 2 weeks of life
-diffuse hemorrhage of small intestine
clostridium difficlie
hemorrhagic enteritis of small intestine of a foals
hemorrhagic bowel syndrome
in adult dairy cattle
-causes hemorrhagic and blood clots small intestine
-high mortality
granulomatous enteritis
horses
rare and unknown cause
mucosa is infiltrated with macrophages
mycobacterium avium
infection in birds
-diffuse thickening of mucosa caused by granulomatous inflammation
-in immunocompirmised animals
idiopathic muscular hypertrophy
in horses
distal illium and esophagus of horses
normal/incidental finding
rarely can obstruct ileum
chronic obstruction of small intestine
small intestine lumen is obstructed by foreign body
-cause muscularis to thicken
hemomelasma ilei
horses
-single or multiple red to brown plaques on serosa near the ileum
-incidental
-antimesenteric side
lymphosarcoma
thickening of intestinal wall that is segmental
homogenous tan, but can have hemorrhage and necrosis
lumen of intestine is smaller but NOT constricted
leimyosarcoma
distinct tan nodule in the wall beneath mucosa
moderate malignancy and metastasis
adenocarcinoma
annular constricting bands in intestine
-constricts lumen of small intestine
very malignant
gastrointestinal stromal tumor
tumor of interstitial cells of canal
-control intestinal motility
-benign or malignant
-look like leiomyosarcoma
torsion
twist of intestine on itself
volvulous
twist of the intestine on mesenteric axis
-more common in horses
intussusception
telescoping of intestine onto itself
2ndary to hypermotility
diffuse congestion, hemorrhage and edema in bowel
stangulation
occurs when intestine is trapped by a band of connective tissue (lipoma)
-usually in older horses
-diffuse congestion, hemorrhage and edema in bowel
hernia
entrapment of intestine in constricted openings
-like inginual rings, umbilicus or ruptured diaphragm
-diffuse congestion, hemorrhage and edema in bowel
E. coli
diarrhea in pigs, rums, foals in first week of life
Rotavirus
diarrhea of pigs and ruminants in first 3 weeks of life
-shortening if villi
cryptosporidia
young pigs and ruminants in first 3 weeks of life
-protozoal infection attach to microvilli
clostridium perfringens C and D
pulpy kidney in sheep
-change to better feed leads to overgrowth of bacteria and endotoxin production
type D- hemorrhage and contusion in sheep
lymphangiectasia
in dogs
-dilation of lacteals in the intestinal villi resulting in malabsorption
inflammatory bowel disease
in dogs and cats
-allergic enteritis due to dietary allergens
panleukopenia
parvovirus in cats
causes diarrhea
ulcerative colitis
boxer dogs
marcophages in the mucosa and ulcers in large intestine
unknown cause
also occurs in cats with macrophages in mucosa
shigella
bacterial infection of primates
-produce ulcers and sometimes hemorrhage
similar to salmonella
swine dysentary
colitis of pigs
caused by brachyspira hyodysenteriae and other bacteria
produces fibrinous colitis with hemorrhage
yersina pseduotuberculosis
bacterial infection of primates, rodents, cattle
-multifocal fibronecrotic colitis
hisomonas meleagridis
protozoan infection o fturkeys
caseous necrosis pin the ceca
transmitted by cecal worm
fibrinous colitis
tichuirs worms (whipworms)
cecum and colon of pigs and dogs
most cause no lesions
heavy infections cause this
in horses: NSADIS, antibiotics and small strongyles cause
colitis X
disease in horses caused by overgrowth of clostridia in large intestine
hemorrhage and edema in colon, no blood in feces
impaction
obstruction of colon caused by feces, foreign bodies, coarse feed
enteroliths are mineralized concretions that build in size until cause impaction can be sand
dilation (megacolon)
can occur secondary to spinal disc disease in dogs
atresia coli/ani
congential defects in cattle
-atresia ani: no anus present
atresia coli: colon ends in blind sac before anus
potomac horse fever
rickettsia infection of horse
colon lumen is filled with water
-transmitted by insects
johne's disease
ruminants bacteria infection
thickening of mucosa from granulomatous inflammation
-proliferative folds (dont' come out when you stretch colon)
-biopsy lymph nodes at ileoceal junction and demonstrate presence of acid fast organisms
ascites
accumulation of clear, yellow fluid in peritoneum
due to chronic liver disease (fibrosis in liver) ,
can also be caused by passive congestion in liver
edema
in pigs
caused by e. coli
affects stomach, subcutis, and peritoneum
hemoperitoneum
blood in abdomen
occurs secondary to trauma
traumatic reticuloperitonitis
occurs in cattle
caused by ingestion of wire/sharp objects
-causes fibrinous peritonitis
wire can penetrate pericardial sac
ruptured urinary bladder
in castrated male cats, cattle
-urethra is blocked with mineral deposit
free grin in abdomen leads to fibrinous peritonitis
feline infectious peritonitis
coronavirus in cats
high protein fluid/fibrin in body cavities
-small white plaques form on mesentery and granulomas may be seen in organs
fat necrosis
fat is mineralized and appears firm, chalky yellow to brown plaques or nodules
idiopathic in jersey and guernsey
vitamin E deficiency
in cats, fish, reptile with high pufa diet
-fat necrosis of subcutis, mesentery momentum
pancreatitis in dogs, cats
leads to leakage of enzymes from pancreas leading to necrosis of fat near it
fescue toxicosis
fat necrosis in ruminants
fat necrosis in older horses
lipomas in old horses lose blood supply and necros
chronic peritonitis
chronic inflammation will resolve with fibrous tags
-not common since most animals die from peritonitis before it is chronic
neoplasia of peritoneum
meothelioma
-rare neoplasm of calves and dogs
-must differentiate from chronic peritonitis
hypoplasia of the pancreas
rare disease in german shepherds
-exocrine pancreas fails to develop
endocrine pancreas is normal
acute pancreatitis
serious disease in dogs
-unknown cause
pancreas as hemorrhage, necrosis, and edema
chronic pancreatits
dogs who suffer repeated bouts of acute pancreatitis
healed by scarring
pancreas is pale, tan, firm, and nodular
hyperplasia of pancreas
exocrine pancreas tissue has tan nodules (1-3 mm)
-incidental in dogs and cats
neoplasia of pancreas
affects dogs and cats
-both exocrine and endocrine pancreas
-adeomas (single, yellow, or white nodules, small)
-adenocarcinoma (large and infiltrative, not well delineated)
fat or glycogen accumulation in liver
pale, tan/brown liver
-cahnge may be diffuse or multifocal
diffuse change is pathologic
nutritional or metabolic disease
yellow liver
large amounts of fat
-diffuse or lobular
liver is soft
green liver
excess bile accumulation
red or red-brown liver
congestoin, very common in necropsy
diffuse or lobular
passive congestion in liver from heart failure
liver is red-brown
lobular pattern
most common cause of lobular pattern
anemia
cause hypoxia to centrilobular cells (in the middle of the locale)
lipid acumulation in liver
fat accumulates in middle of lobules causes lobular pattern to liver
heptotoxins in liver
damages centrolobular cells in lower amounts
-if in large amounts, causes mosaic pattern
cholangitis
may or may not cause the lobular pattern in liver
mosaic pattern in liver
produces large, red and yellow areas in liver
uncommon
-similar to lobular pattern but more sever
-caused by toxins (like vit e/se deficiency in pigs, halothane)
infectious diseases of liver
cause multifocal pattern
-caused by bacteria, fungi, parasite, etc
-produce foci of necrosis
liver is showered randomly
lesions are yellow, white or tan and flat or raised
Hepatocellular carcinoma
primary neoplasia of liver in dogs
-single masses have better prognosis but usually large and multilobated
-brow to yellow areas of fat and red areas of hemorrhage
-malignant
biliary adenocarcinoma
primary tumor to liver
-adenoma incidental in cats (single discrete nodule that is often cystic)
adenocarcinoma: rare in dogs
-multiple firm white nodules with depressed centers
hemangiosarcoma
may be primary to liver in dogs
-multiple red nodules and blood filled cysts
metastatic carcinomas and sarcomas
liver is common site of metastasis
-multiple firm white nodules
-carcinomas tend to form lots of fibrous connective tissue
nodular hyperplaisa
incidental finding in aged dogs
-solitary, discrete nodule that is soft, and tan
regeneration of liver
needs intact architectural framework is necessary to regenerate
cirrhosis
nodular regeneration with fibrosis
chronic hepatitis
in dogs, unknown cause
-liver is misshapen with many nodules
responsive to steroid treatment
fibrosis of the liver
post necrotic scarring
healing phase of massive necrosis
rare, because massive necrosis usually kills patient
misshapen liver with nodules
fibrosis of the liver
chronic heart failure
liver is congested with lobular pattern
-produces passive congestion
liver has fibrosis in centrilobular areas
-increased chronic blog pressure leads to as cities
uniform, smooth, good shape, light brown or white liver
chronic cholangitis
rare,
caused by bacterial infection in biliary tract
liver is firm and has lobular pattern
similar to chronic heart failure
portosystemic shunt
congenital or acquired shunting of portal blood around liver
lack of blood supply through portal vein leads to atrophy of liver cells
liver gets pale and small
acquired shunts occur after chronic liver disease
distended, firm, bile ducts
seen in cattle and sheep with liver flukes
-bile ducts are visible on liver's surface as white, thick tortuous channels that are raised
cholangitis
inflammation of bile acts
seen in cats
can be infectious or immune mediated
liver flukes in bile ducts cause thickening of duct walls
uncommon because we don't have intermediate host for fluke
may cause lobular pattern
hemorrhage of gall bladder
occur in any of the bleeding disorders
fibrinous cholecystitis
salmonella infection of cattle
not commonly seen
thick, viscous, opaque bile
seen in anorexic animals after a few days
normal bile is clear, yellow-green liquid
cystic hyperplasia of gall bladder
uncommon incidental finding
unknown cause of dog
enlarged gall bladder
mucosa contains small cysts or larger papillary or nodular growth
mucocele
collection of mucus in gall bladder
forms solid gel that obstructs gall bladder and leads to rupture
seen in dogs
mucosa has cystic hyperplasia and obstruction leads to icterus
pustular dermatitis can be caused by (2 things)
infectious (fungal bacterial)
immune mediated
pustular dermatitis descriptors
pustules are aggregates of neutrophils within epidermis
-pustules are present, short lived, and leave a crust
-superficial bacteria: staph and dermatophytes
pustules over hair follicles are called
follicultis
caused by bacteria, fungi, mites
pemphigus folaceous
pustular dermatitis with antibodies against intracellular bridges of keratinocytes
bulla
fluid filled cavity greater than 5 mm diameter
vesicle
fluid filled cavity less than 5 mm diameter
caused by edema
vesicular and bullous dermatitis descriptions
short lived, often rupture to leave a crust
hydropic degeneration
type of intracellular edema seen with lupus and dermatomyositis
-edema is within the basal epithelial cells
drug interactions
ballooning degeneration
intracellular edema within superficial keratinocytes
viral skin disease
necrotizing dermatitis
necorisis of epidermis
ulceration of skin
macule in necrotizing dermatitis
flat, discolored area less than 1 cm
papule in necrotizing dermatitis
slightly raised area within skin
deythema in necrotizing dermatitis
redness associated with macules and papules
erythema multiforme
necrosis of single keratinocyte
-adverse drug reaction or neoplasia
toxic epidermal necroysis
severe form of erythema multiforme
adverse drug reaction or neoplasia
burns
epidermi and dermis can both be necrotic
photosensitization
mostly in large animas
nonpigmented areas
caused by ingestion of feed or secondary y to chronic liver disease
systemic bacterial infections and foot rot are classified as:
necrotizing dermatitis
exudative and ulcerative dermatitis
disease that produce crusts or ulcers
allergic skin disease (exudative and ulcerative dermatitis)
atopy: inhaled allergen
food allergy
esoinophils present: cats, horses, no dogs
eosinophillic granuloma complex (exudative and ulcerative dermatitis)
common in cats, horses, dogs
produce nodules, paupules in skin and ulcers
allerigic contact dermatitis
exudative and ulcerative dermatitis
on sparsely haired areas
poison ivy
irritant contact dermatitis
exudative and ulcerative dermatitis
drugs, soaps, acids, detergent etc
sparsely haired areas
pyotraumatic dermatitis
exudative and ulcerative dermatitis
hot spots
self inflicted trauma from allergic skin disease
hyperkeratotic disease
excess keratin on skin surface
flakes, scales dandruff produced
orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis
hyperkeratotic disease
nondiagnosistic
keratinized cells lack nuclei
parakeratotic hyperkeratosis
excess keratin, nuclei retained
severe, is diagnostic of zinc and vitamin a def
seborrhea
overacitve sebaceous glands
rare primary disease in cockers
can be secondary to allergies, parasites, infectection, etc
hyperplastic dermatitis
occurs in any chronic skin disease
skin is thickened and leathery
can get hyperpigmentation
Epithelial Neoplasia
squamous cell carcinoma: locally invasive, low metastatic, very responsive to treatment.
melanoma: skin (benign) oral (malignant)
papilloma: benign
intracutaneous cornifying epithelioma: rare benign tumor
perivascular dermatitis
all inflammation of skin arises from blood vessel in dermis
eosinophils a are indicative of parasites or allergies
inerface and lichenoid dermatitis
seen together in many autoimmune diseases
interface: inflammation of superficial dermis at epidermal/dermal junction
lichenoid; dense band of inflammation of superficial epidermis
sharpy demarcated
nnodular dermatitis is caused by (2 things)
inflammation or neoplasia
nodular dermatitis description
nodules are firm swellings in skin that have secondary ulcerations
sterile granulomatous nodular dermatitis
dogs only
inflammation of dermis centered on adnexa
furniculosis
hair follicles rupture
panniculitis
inflammation of fat in subcutis
physical injury, nutritional, idiopathic, vit e def
alopecia
primary: endocrine skin disease (most common hypothyroidism)
secondary: any type of skin disorder
histyocytoma (dermal)
benign dogs less than 2 years, regresses
mast cell tumor
common in dogs
benign or malignant
sarcoid
fibroblast tumor of horses
very common
benign
bovine papiloma virus
lipoma
common in dogs
hemangioma
vascular endothelium
hemangiopericytoma
in dogs, high rate of recurrence, rarely metastatic
plasma cell tumor
uncommon benign tumor of dogs
fibroma
dog and cat from fibroblast
from vaccines in cats
sebaceous gland tumor
adenoma or adenocarcinoma
perianal gland tumor
very common in male dogs usually benign
basal cell tumor
most primitive of adnexal tumors
progenitor cells
trichoepithelioma: common in dogs benign
aprocrine gland tumor: uncommon in dogs, cats
pilomatricoma: rare benign tumor of dogs