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271 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Liver failure becomes apparent when _______ of liver is destroyed or dysfunctional
Liver injury results in release of these two major indicators of liver function.
Ast (aspartate amlno-transterase) andALT (Alanlne amlno-transferase)
Which is not a sign of liver failure: Jaundice, Hypoalbumenernia, Hepatorenal syndrome, Portal hypertension, Encephalopathy, Endocrine abnormalities, coagulopathy
all are signs
Encephalopathy I liver failure is due to the failure of the liver to remove _________ from the .
bile aids in elimination of bilirubrin and cholesterol; and emulsifies dietary fat in the gut. T/F
True; True
_______ occurs if bilirubin levels are greater than _______mg/dl.
Jaundice, 1.2
Jaundice becomes clinically apparent If serum bilirubin Is over _________
2.0-3.0 mg/dl.
Jaundice is best recognized in the __________.
Which type of bilirubin is tightly bound to albumin?
Unconjugated bilirubin:
Which type of bilirubin is water soluble?
Conjugated bilirubin
Which type of bilirubin can be excreted in ?
Prehepatic Jaundice is associated with the buildup of ________ bilirubin and the ________of red cells.
Unconjugated, hemolysis
A manifestation of Gilbert's disease is:
Prehepatic Jaundice
_______ Jaundice shows signs of viral or -induced hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, tumors, and cirrhosis
T/F Hepatic Jaundice is associated with a buildup of conjugated bilirubin only.
False: It is mixed conjugated and unconjugated
Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is manifest in what condition?
post-hepatic jaundice
post-hepatic jaundice is seen in _________ disorders such as gallstones, tumors of bile ducts, pancreas, or duodenum
_________ is the accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin (usually> 20 mg/dl) in the brain causing severe neurologic damage
Kernicterus can be seen in this condition that affects infants:
hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis)
Elevated ammonia levels in the from liver failure that lead to disturbances in consciousness ranging from behavioral abnormalities to coma is called:
hepatic encephalopathy
Hepatorenal syndrome:
liver fails--> kidneys fail drop in output, increase in urea nitrogen/creatine levels (in end-stage liver disease)
______ is synonymous with end-stage liver disease
T/F Cirrhosis is among the top ten causes of I western society.
Cirrhosis may take one to ___ years to develop.
What is the major pathologic process that accompanies cirrhosis?
progressive fibrosis (regenerative firm nodular surface)
________ occurs with changes within the liver itself.; ________ occurs with changes within the biliary tree.
portal cirrhosis; biliary cirrhosis
The presence of fibrosis and nodularity impedes flow in the liver and is one of the major causes of _____ ____________.
portal hypertension
T/F Patients with cirrhosis have an increased risk of from the following:; a. progressive liver failure b. complications of portal hypertension c. hepatocellular carcinoma
A. True; B. True; C. True
T/F portal hypertension leads to:; A. ascites; B. Spleenomegaly; C. formation of anastamoses (shunts) between the portal and systemic circulation; D. Hepatic encephalopathy E. Undeniable urge to smoke barkies
A. True; B. True C. True D. True E. False (except for individuals from low educational and rural backgrounds, Evan)
formation of anastamoses (shunts) between the portal and systemic circulation (a result of portal hypertension)
esophageal varacositities - tities?
__ ________hepatitis carriers in US; 1 in __ patients is a carrier
4 million; 70
What may be one of the first signs of hepatitis?
The functional unit of the breast
Under hormonal influence, terminal buds of breast ductules develop into ______. Milk is produced in response to __________.
acini, prolactin
The breast has many lymphatics that drain into the ______(75%) and the _______ nodes.
axillary, parasternal
Breasts enlarge during _______ & ________, and atrophy in ________ period
pregnancy & lactation, post-menopausal
Fibroadenomas (benign) generally affect ______ _______
young women
Fibrocystic breast disease generally affects ______ _____
middle age
Breast cancer generally affects age ___ and older
__ in __ women in US will get breast cancer
1, 9
congenital absence of the breast
more that 2 develop
where do supernumerary develop?
along the milk line
invasion by bacteria in the breast is usually caused by ____ or especially ____ in lactating women
strep, staph
______ mastitis: Usually affects _______ females ____ ____ milk provides a good medium edema --> _______ if not treated
Acute, lactating, stagnant milk, abscess
_______ mastitis: Unknown cause may produce small _____
chronic, lumps
Breast changes during puberty are caused by _______
excessive response to estrogen can cause _______ _______, usually an abnormal enlargement of one breast (treated with a ____________)
juvenile hyperplasia, mammoplasty
Post menopausally the breast _________
female-like enlargement of male breast due to excess estrogen
The spectrum of macroscopic and microscopic changes in the breast resulting from an exaggerated uncoordinated response of the mammary ducts and stroma to cyclic hormonal stimulation that occurs during the normal menstrual cycle
Fibrocystic change in the breast
Most common disorder of the breast
Fibrocystic change
Most common cause of a palpable breast mass in patients between 25 and 50
Fibrocystic change
Characterized by lumpy and mid-cycle tenderness
Fibrocystic change
Fibrocystic change in the breast is usually _____, but can be asymmetrical
Although a mammography may reveal areas of cysts and calcification, a ______ biopsy is the only way to establish a definitive diagnosis
Name the 4 types of benign breast tumors
1. Fibroadenoma 2. Adenoma of the 3. Intraductal papilloma 4. Phyllodes tumor (can also be malignant)
Most common benign breast tumor
Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumor in women under ___
A firm, rubbery, painless, well-circumscribed 2-5 cm mass
fibroadenoma of the breast
fibroadenoma of the breast does/does not undergo malignant change
does not
Benign tumor that presents with serous or y discharge and a palpable mass, can be mistaken for malignancy
Adenoma of the
Benign tumor of the major lactiferous ducts, serous or y discharge, can mistaken for malignancy
Intraductal Papilloma
Benign, large, bulky tumor often w/ overlying ulceration of the skin. Cystic spaces w/ leaf like projections from the cyst wall & myxomatous contents
Phyllodes Tumor
most common cancer in women
breast cancer
most common cause of cancer in women
lung (breast cancer is 2nd)
Most common cause of breast mass in post menopausal women, occurs most frequently in upper outer quadrant of the breast, & metastasizes generally by the lymphatics
malignant breast tumor
malignant breast tumors can demonstrate the presence of _____ & ________ receptors in some tumors which correlates w/ a _______ prognosis
estrogen & progesterone, better
Most common type of malignant breast tumor is _______ ______ _______ (also called invasive ductal or scirrhous)
infiltrating ductal carcinoma
Several breast cancers induce ________ tissue response w/ the CT becoming dense and the tumor is firm and gritty. The dense CT pulls on adjacent tissue and ________ of the skin and ______ of the .
desmoplastic, puckering, retraction
First 4 risk factors of breast cancer
Age; First-degree female familial history (mut. In p53, BRCA-1 or 2); History of cancer in one breast or ovarian/endometrial cancer; Early menarche (menstruation) & late menopause
Other 6 risk factors for breast cancer
obesity, nulliparity (no births), 1st preg. after 30, proliferative fibrocystic breast disease, high animal fat diet, caucasian (jewish)
What is the biggest risk for breast cancer?
Age (0-39 yrs: 1 in 231, 40-59yrs: 1 in 25, 60-79 yrs: 1 in 15, 90yrs: 1 in 7)
Name the breast cancer type: Pre-invasive; Tumor cells fill ducts; Necrosis has cheese-like consistency
Intraductal carcinoma in situ
Name the breast cancer type: Most common type (2/3 of all breast cancers); Tumor cells in cords, islands, & glands in dense CT stroma; Dense CT is firm and is white and gritty on sectioning
Invasive (infiltrative) ductal carcinoma (scirrhous carcinoma)
Name the breast cancer type: Exzematous lesion of the or areola; Underlying infiltrating ductal carcinoma almost always present; Large cells w/ clear halo invade epidermis
Paget’s disease of the breast
Name the breast cancer type: Clusters of neoplastic cells fill intralobular ductules & acini; May lead to invasive carcinoma; Often bilateral
Lobular carcinoma in situ
Name the breast cancer type: Multicentric or bilateral; Cells arranged in linear fashion; Better prognosis than infiltrating ductal
Invasive lobular carcinoma
Name the breast cancer type: Soft, bulky tumor w/ almost no CT; Sheets of tumor cells infiltrated by lymphocytes; Better prognosis than infiltrating ductal
Medullary carcinoma
Name the breast cancer type: Gelatinous consistency; Usually older women; Extracellular mucous material; Better prognosis than infiltrating ductal
Mucinous (colloid) carcinoma
Name the breast cancer type: Red, swollen, hot skin; Skin may be pitted; Lymphatic involvement of skin; Poor prognosis
Inflammatory breast carcinoma
The most accurate prognostic factor of breast cancer is
What percentage of breast biopsies are cancerous?
______ ______ asperation is 95% accurate by qualified cytopathologist
fine needle
What term means: Labored Breathing
What term means: Physican wasting with loss of weight and musche mass caused by disease
What process takes place in pulmonary fibrosis or tuberculosis?
What is this process: Airless lung parenchyma due to incomplete expansion of lungs or collapse of previously infiltrated lung
Premature infants commonly have respiratory problems due to insufficient pulmonary __________.
What is the most significant congenital respiratory disease?
Tracheo-esophageal fistula
________ obstruction (in obstructive lung disease) is due to narrowing of airway (what disease) or loss of elastic recoil (what disease).
Expiratory; asthma; emphysema
Restrictive lung disease is due primarily to either _________ abnormalities or __________ damage.
chest wall; parenchymal
Increased responsiveness of bronchial tree to various stimuli is ________.
In Asthma, which is more difficult, expiration or inspiration?
Is Asthma a restrictive or obstructive lung disease?
Usually Obstructive
T or F: Asthma is more common in children.
TRUE. 10% of children get it, while 5% of s get it.
T or F: Asthma is more common in females.
FALSE (males 2:1)
What are the two types of asthma?
Extrinsic and Intrinsic
What type of asthma is associated with Type I hypersenistivity, allergens, atopic dermatitis and hay fever?
T or F: Intrinsic asthma is immune-mediated.
One of the MAIN causes (that he underlined) of INTRINSIC asthma is _______
Psychological stress
T or F: Aspirin is involved in Intrinsic asthma.
________ asthma is associated with young-onset asthma.
What immune cells are primarily involved in asthma?
mast cells
Is asthma considered acute or chronic?
Acute (although the underlying process is more chronic)
What 2 components of the bronchial wall are primarily involved in asthma? (undergo hyperplasia)
Mucous glands (goblet cells); Smooth muscle
T or F: Chronic inflammation is part of asthma.
What Antibody is involved in extrinsic asthma?
What clinical significance does multiple asthma medications have?
More medications means more severe asthma
What four complications can long term use of corticosteroids have?
Osteoporosis, immunosuppression, addisonian crisis (secondary adrenal insufficiency), diabetes
What are the three major chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)?
Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis, Bronchiectasis
T or F: Many times COPD is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, not just pinned down to one systemic problem.
T or F: COPD is a reversible condition
Among patients with COPD in the US, the vast majority have __________ (14 million) and the remainder have __________ (2 million)
Chronic Bronchitis; Emphysema
What disease: Enlargement of airspaces distal to terminal bronchioles; destruction of alveolar walls; loss of elastic recoil; collapse of unsupported, enlarged air spaces on expiration; obstruction on expiration
What is the characteristic difference of air sacs between healthy air sacs and air sacs with emphysema?
Emphysema: weakened and collapsed air sacs with Excess mucous
What is the major cause of emphysema?
In extremely rare cases (1%) what can cause emphysema?
hereditary alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (which protect the tissue from leukocyte proteases)
The type of emphysema caused by smokers is called _________ emphysema.
The type of emphysema caused by Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency is called _________ emphysema.
Dyspnea, Cachexia, Barrel Chest, Cor Pulmonale, Congestive Heart Failure are clinical signs of what disease?
"Barrel Chest" is a result of what?
attempt to increase ventilation
Cor pulmonale causes _________ heart failure due to __________.
Right-sided; Pulmonary hypertension caused by lung disease
T or F: In Cor Pulmonale, The Right Ventricle hypertrophies due to congestion in the lungs.
What disease: Excessive production of tracheobronchial mucous causing cough.
Chronic Bronchitis
_____ % of Chronic Bronchitis cases are caused by _________.
90%; Smoking (I know we all love percentages)
What disease: Thickening of bronchial walls, mucous gland hyperplasia, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, mucous plugging.
Chronic Bronchitis
T or F: Chronic Bronchitis results in Restriction.
False; leads to obstruction
One of the main characteristics (underlined in the notes) of chronic Bronchitis is ________.
T or F: Chronic Bronchitis gives you the "pink puffer."
False; gives you "Blue Bloater" (B for Bronchitis, Blue Bloater)
T or F: Emphysema gives you the "pink puffer."
True (emphysema=pink puffer)
What disease: purulent cough, dyspnea, hypoxia, cyanosis, peribronchial fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale, congestive heart failure.
Chronic Bronchitis
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Productive cough
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Cor Pulmonale
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Minimal Sputum
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Severe Dyspnea
Emphysema (Puffer=dyspnea)
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Hypoxia, Cyanosis, polycythemia (increased rd cells)
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Weight loss
Emphysema (cachexia)
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Pulmonary hypertension
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Frequent Upper Respiratory infections
Bronchitis, Emphysema, or Both: Acute disease
Neither (trick question!)
What potential complication arises from using N2O sedation on a patient with emphysema?
They can be dependent on LOW O2 levels as a primary stimulant to respiration; N2O has high concentration of O2 so it can lead to cease of respiration.
T or F: N2O can diffuse into closed spaces
If N2O diffuses into large gas-filled blebs in patients with COPD, what can happen?
They can rupture
What can be done in the dental office to prevent an attack of dyspnea during treatment?
Treat in semi-upright position; always have inhaler
What is ectasia?
dilatation or distension of hollow organs
What disease: Permanent dilatation of bronchi, can be secondary to persisting infection or obstruction
What is the most common complication of chronic bronchitis?
T or F: Tumors can be associated with bronchiectasis
T or F: Cystic fibrosis can be associated with bronchiectasis
T or F: A patient with Bronchiectasis presents with bronchi (and/or bronchioli) filled with mucopurulent material; this mucous can be cleared by coughing.
First statement true, second statement false
What disease is associated with low grade fever, malaise, fatigue, and clubbing of the fingers?
What disease is associated with amyloidosis and recurrent pneumonias?
Why do patients with bronchiectasis have clubbing of the fingers?
It is related to chronic hypoxia.
What is the only acute, restrictive lung disease?
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Sepsis, shock, trauma, pneumonia, toxic lung injury, aspiration of fluids, and transfusions can all cause what disease?
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is caused by a mechanism of either 1. Injury to the _________ _______ in pulmonary capillaries or 2. Injury to the ________ _________ _______.
1. Endothelial cells; 2. Alveolar lining cells
What are the 2 main pathways of pathogenesis for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome?
Damage to alveolar lining cells or damage to alveolar capillary endothelium--leads to interstitial edema, high protein exudation (hyaline membranes)
Which acute disease exhibits severe dyspnea, cyanosis, and hypoxia?
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
In this disease, fibrin is deposited along damaged alveolar lining , which leads to diffuse alveolar damage.
What is Acute respiratory distress syndrome? (jeopardy style baby)
Chronic Restrictive lung diseases are diseases of _________ ________.
Lung parenchyma
The end result of chronic restrictive lung diseases is _________.
Diffuse pulmonary fibrosis
Which chronic restrictive lung disease has no known cause?
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
What disease invovles extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by exposure to organic dust?
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
T or F: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is only an acute disease.
False. It can also be a chronic disease.
Acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis is of _______ onset and is mediated (or affected) by _________ ________.
Sudden; antigen-antibody Complexes
Two of the causes of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (as stated in the notes) are: __________ Lung and _______ _________ Lung.
Farmer's Lung (moldy hay/grain); Pigeon Breeder's Lung (pigeon serum protein in droppings)
The two chronic restrictive lung diseases caused by occupational/environmental exposure are: 1.____, 2._________
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis; Pneumoconioses (ie asbestosis)
Which chronic lung disease is caused by inhalation of fumes, dust, or particulate matter (inorganic)?
What is the key element of the massive lung fibrosis that causes pneumoconioses?
Alveolar Macrophages
A particle that is less than ______ microns in size can enter alveoli, contributing to what disease?
5; Pneumoconioses
T or F: Pneumoconioses is caused by exposure to organic dust particles.
False; inorganic particles (organic--Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis)
What are 3 specific examples of Pneumoconioses?
1. Coal worker's lung (anthracosis); 2. Silicosis; 3. Asbestosis
T or F: Anthracosis usually leads to bronchogenic carcinoma.
False; Most=benign course
T or F: Anthracosis increases incidence of Tuberculosis.
T or F: Silicosis can lead to bronchogenic carcinoma.
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: Increased risk of TB
Anthracosis and Silicosis
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: Leads to Fibrosis
All Three
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: Increased risk of bronchogenic carcinoma
Silicosis (maybe asbestosis too, but mesothelioma is the characteristic sign of asbestosis
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: Can lead to mesothelioma
Asbestosis (this is the #1 characteristic of asbestosis)
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: increases risk of cancer 5 fold
Anthracosis, Silicosis, or Asbestosis, all three, or none: shows pleural plaques
In asbestosis, what sets off a fibrogenic reaction?
Macrophages ingesting an asbestos fiber
What disease: Multi-system granulomatous disease of unknown etiology (presumably immune mediated)
What immune related chronic restrictive lung disease affects blacks 10:1 and women 2:1?
T or F: Sarcoidosis exhibits caseating granulomas
False; exhibit non-caseating granulomas
T or F: Sarcoidosis can affect any organ, not just the lungs.
Sarcoidosis can affect any organ, but what does it affect especially, according to lecture (according to carranza….blah blah blah)
Especially Lungs, thoracic/neck lymph nodes, the skin, salivary glands, and lacrimal gland (dryness)
What % of patients with sarcoidosis have elevated ACE (angiotensin Converting Enzyme)?
60 % (another percentage baby)
What chronic lung disease is associated with elevated ACE?
What is the definition of Pneumonia?
Any infection in the lung (acute or chronic)
Neutrophil/complement defects (humoral defects) result in increased incidence of ___________ ________.
Bacterial pneumonia
Cell-mediated immune defects result in increased incidence of (intracellular/extracelluar) ___________.
Intracellular parasites (ie TB, HSV, pneumocystis carinii)
What disease presents commonly following URTI, absent splenic function, chills, pleuritic chest pain, productive cough.
Pneumonia is of Bacterial, viral, or fungal origin?
Any of the above.
What are the 2 main subclasses of pneumonia?
Lobar Pneumonia and Bronchopneumonia
What organisms cause community acquired acute pneumonias?
Haemophilus Influenzae; Moraxella catarrhalis; Staph Aureus; Klebsiella Pneumoniae; Legionella Pneumoniae
What organism causes Pneumococcus?
Streptococcus pneumoniae
What organism causes nosocomial pneumonia (according to lecture notes)?
Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
What is the primary cause for aspiration pneumonia?
Markedly debilitated; unconscious patients; abscesses frequent
Cytomegalovirus primarily affects who?
Immunosuppressed (AIDS), bone marrow transplant
Pneumocystis pneumonia affects who?
Immunosuppressed (AIDS)
What organism causes tuberculosis?
Mycobacteria Tuberculosis (causes chronic bacterial infection)
What chronic lung disease is associated with caseating granulomatous inflammation?
What types of cells are associated with TB?
epitheliod macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes
approximately how many of the world's population are infected with TB?
What is the "Ghon Complex"?
associated with localized lung inflammation in primary tuberculosis
The "ghon Complex" forms in which part of the lung and enlarges which lymph nodes?
lower part of upper lobe, upper part of lower lobe (right in the middle); enlarges hilar lymph nodes
What disease: non-specific mild pulmonary disease, low grade fever, 95% undiagnosed, ghon complex
Primary TB
What disease: Non-productive cough, low grade fever, malaise, night sweats, weight loss, hemoptysis
Secondary TB
What disease: widespread hematogenous seeding of bacteria; numerous granulomas in lungs or other organs (ie spleen)
Miliary TB
T or F: Disseminated TB can cause granulomas on pluera (causing pleuritis) and extrapulmonary TB
T or F: a patient with latent TB is not infectious
Coccidiomycosis, Aspergillosis, or Zygomycosis: Deep fungal lung disease
All of them (that better not have tricked you)
Cavitary lesions filled with pus.
Lung Abscess
________ abscesses have a fibrous capsule
What are lung abscesses a complication of?
Staphylococcal pneumonia; aspiration of foreign material (swallowing a crown, poor dental hygiene, etc.)
What is by far the most common type of lung cancer?
Bronchiogenic Carcinoma (90-95% of lung cancers)
List the 4 types of Bronchiogenic carcinomas.
1. SCCA (30%) 2. Adenocarcinoma (30%) 3. Large Cell undifferentiated (10%) 4. Small Cell (oat cell-20%)
What do small (oat) cells arise from?
Neuroendocrine cells
Which type of bronchogenic carcinoma has the worst prognosis, most aggressive, and not usually amenable to surgery?
Small Cell (oat cell)
What type of lung cancer arises from the terminal bronchioles?
Bronchioalveolar cancer
What type of lung cancer is associated with asbestos exposure, takes 25-40 yrs to develop, is pluera-derived, and has a poor prognosis?
T or F: Metastatic lung tumors are more common than primary lung tumors (single site)
Fibrothorax, Pneumothorax, Empyema, Hemothorax, or chylothorax: encasement of lungs with fibrous tissue that obliterates pleural cavity.
Fibrothorax, Pneumothorax, Empyema, Hemothorax, or chylothorax: Entry of air or gas into pleural cavity; may cause atelectasis, compression, collapse of lung.
Pneumothorax (spontaneous vs trauma)
Fibrothorax, Pneumothorax, Empyema, Hemothorax, or chylothorax: Pockets of pus surrounded by fibrous tissue; caused by infection that spreads from the lung.
Fibrothorax, Pneumothorax, Empyema, Hemothorax, or chylothorax: Collection of in space between chest wall and lung (pleural cavity).
Hemothorax (trauma vs. rupture of intrathoracic aortic aneurysm)
Fibrothorax, Pneumothorax, Empyema, Hemothorax, or chylothorax: Presence of lymphatic fluid in pleural space; secondary to leakage/obstruction of thoracic duct or main tributaries
Chylothorax (causes: lymphoma, surgical trauma)
Which MRTI is characterized by: acute viral illnes of larynx, especially affects ages 3-5 yrs., loud cough, barking seal (like chase in the mornings)
T or F: Croup is extremely life-threatening.
Which MRTI is characterized by: acute, severe, life-threatening disease, presents as a child w/ fever +/- sore throat, clinical triad of drooling, dysphagia, distress
What organism causes Epiglottitis?
Haemophilus Influenzae
What MRTI is characterized by: acute infectious disease of lower respiratory tract (bronchi/bronchioles, not alveoli), mostly in young infants 2-24 mos.,
What is main cause of Bronchiolitis?
Viral infection (80%--esp. respiratory synctial virus)
T or F: Bronchiolitis usually resolves in 7-10 days.
What disease: persisten hoarseness, change in voice, stridor (high pitched crowing sound), rare under age 40
SCCA of larynx
evan is a redneck; he is also yellow-bellied
The first statement is true and the second statement is false
Hep ___ has no carrier state; no relation to cancer
Hep A
Hep __ & __ are transmitted by the oral-fecal route
Hep A & E
Hep __ is the most infectious of the borne Hep virus
Hep B
_____ in serum more than 6 months = carrier stae
Hep ___ infection --> 85% proceed to chronic infection
Hep C
Hep __ requires Hep ___
Hep D, Hep B
_______ Hepatitis = fatty change, focal liver cell necrosis, neutrophil infiltrates, Mallory bodies
Triad of diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, & increased skin pigmentation
Bronze diabetes
Autosomal recesive disorder of copper metabolism, decreased serum ceruloplasmin, Kayser Fleischer rings in cornea, Liver disease ranging form chronic hepatits to cirrhosis, involvement of basal ganglia - motor signs
Wilson's disease
Benign tumor, related to oral contraceptive use, rupture can result in severe hemorrhage
Adenoma of liver
the most common PRIMARY malignancy of liver
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Associated w/ cirrhosis (especially Hep B & Hep C), Aflatoxin B, Inc serum alpha fetoprotein
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Associated w/ thorotrast dye, arsenic, or polyvinyl chloride
Most common MALIGNANCY of liver
Metastatic malignancy
Predisposed by alcohol intake & gallstones, inc serum amylase, abdominal pain, hypocalcemia, 20% mortality
Acute pancreatitis
Progressive parenchymal fibrosis, associated w/ alchoholism/cholecystitis, can have calcifications & pseudocysts
Chronic pancreatits
Most often in the head of pancreas, causes obstructive jaundice, abdominal pain radiating to the back
Pancreatic carcinoma
pancreatic carcinoma generally has a good prognosis because late metastastes. (T/F)
FALSE (poor prognosis, early metastastes)
Lack of relaxation caused by spasms at the lower esophageal sphincter --> difficulty swallowing
______ hernia - Part of the stomach goes above the diaphragm
Hiatal hernia
A hernia where the cardia of the stomach is pulled through the esophageal hiatus (rollling or sliding)?
sliding hernia
epithelium undergoes metaplasia from squamous epithelium --> columnar epithelium w/ goblet cells --> possible adenocarcinoma, caused by gastric reflux
Barrett's esophagus
Squamous cell carcinomas occur in the ___ 2/3 of the esophagus while adenocarcinomas occur in the _____ 1/3
Upper, lower
What bacteria causes chronic gastritis
Helicobacter pylori
Chronic gastritis & NSAIDS toxicity can cause
peptic ulcers
______ ______ syndrome - tumors in pancreas & duodenum --> inc gastrin --> too much acid
Zollinger Ellison
H. pylori, nitrosamines (smoked meats), diet low in fruits/veggies, chronic gastritis are all causes of
stomach cancer
blind pouch in small intestines
Meckel's diverticulum
Meckel's diverticulum think rule of __'s
2's: 2% of population, 2 inches long, 60% under age 2, distal illium 2 ft from colon
caused by 1 congenital lack of ganglion cells --> obstruction --> distention of colon
Hirschprungs disease
______ infarction of entire bowel wall, usually
Pseudomembrane over ulcers in the colon, antibiotics --> clostridium difficile
Pseudomembranous colitis
crypt abscesses, pseudopolyps, higher long term risk of cancer, only on the mucosal surface are features of Chron's or Ulcerative colitis
Ulcerative colitis (any other feature think crohn's)