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68 Cards in this Set

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question
answer
the liver and gallbladder are interconnected by ducts known as…
the biliary tract
the biliary tracts drains to…
the duodenum
what is the duodenum
the first segment of the small intestine
the liver and gallbladder are located …
in the upper right portion of he abdomen
what test of the liver can show fatty liver, chronic hepatitis, metabolic liver diseases, cancer, hemochromatosis, etc?
a liver biopsy
what is fatty liver
excess fat in the liver
what is chronic liver inflammation (chronic hepatitis)
what is wilsons disease
a metabolic liver disease characterized by an excess of copper
what is hemochromatosis?
iron overload
the liver performs many functions, such as..
regulates chemicals in the body and producing clotting factors
the blood supply to the liver comes directly from …
the intestines and heart
the hepatic artery brings blood to the liver from…
the heart
jaundice
yellowish discoloration of skin and eyes
cholestasis
reduction or stoppage of bile flow
hepatic encephalopathy
deterioration of brain function due to build up of toxins normally removed by the brain
portal hypertension
abnormally high blood pressure in the vein that brings blood from the intestines to the liver
inflammation of the pancreas can be cause by…
gallstones, alcohol, various drugs, some viral infectins, digestive enzymes
cancer of the blood vessels of the liver
angiosarcoma
angiosarcoma is caused by
exposure to arsenic or vinyl chloride in the workplace… vinyl chloride is used to make PVC
cholecystitis is…
inflammation of the gallbladder
what causes cholecystitis
usually from blockage of the cystic duct
the cystic duct
joins the gallbladder to the common bile duct
what are gallstones
usually made of cholesterol crystalized from bile
risk factors for pancreatic cancer
smoking, chronic pancreatitis, long standing diabetes
typical symptoms of pancreatic cancer
pain, weightloss, jaundice, vomiting
What is Neurogenic Bladder
Neurogenic bladder refers to dysfunction of the urinary bladder due to disease of the central nervous system or peripheral nerves involved in the control of micturition (urination).
What is Ormond's disease or retroperitoneal fibrosis?
Retroperitoneal fibrosis or Ormond's disease is a disease featuring the proliferation of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum, the compartment of the body containing the kidneys, aorta, renal tract and various other structures. It may present with lower back pain, renal failure, hypertension, deep vein thrombosis and other obstructive symptoms
What is obstructive uropathy?
structural or functional hindrane or normal urine flow sometimes leading to renal dysfunction
Retroperitoneal fibrosis or Ormond's disease is a disease featuring the proliferation of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum, the compartment of the body containing the kidneys, aorta, renal tract and various other structures. It may present with lower back pain, renal failure, hypertension, deep vein thrombosis and other obstructive symptoms
Neurogenic Bladder
This is the narrowing of the renal artery; it can impede blood flow to the target kidney.
Renal artery stenosis
Refractory Hypertension
: Drug resistant hypertension? considered resistant if BP cannot be reduced to below 140/90 mm Hg despite adherence to an adequate and appropriate 3-drug regimen that includes a diuretic
Gnathostomiasis
Gnathostomiasis (also known as larva migrans profundus is the human infection by the nematode (roundworm) Gnathostoma spinigerum and/or Gnathostoma hispidum, which infects vertebrates.
Renal artery arteriogram
A renal arteriogram is a special type of X-ray picture that helps doctors see the blood vessels in your kidneys.
This is the condition of having outpocketing of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weaknesses of muscle layers in the colon wall.
Diverticulosis
What is Steatorrhea?
is the presence of excess fat in feces. Stools may also float due to excess lipid, have an oily appearance
What is Volvulus?
A volvulus is a bowel obstruction with a loop of bowel whose nose has abnormally twisted on itself.
What is Proctalgia fugax?
Proctalgia fugax (or levator syndrome) is a severe, episodic, rectal and sacrococcygeal pain. It can be caused by cramp of the pubococcygeus or levator ani muscle
This is defined as mucosal erosions of the gastric lining equal to or greater than 0.5 cm.
Peptic Ulcer
Esophagitis (or oesophagitis) is inflammation of the
Esophogus
There are many types of digestive disorders. The symptom(s) vary widely depending on the problem. In general symptoms would include:
Blood instool; changes in bowel habits; heartburn not relieved by antacids
Smoking, chronic pancreatitis, and possibly long-standing diabetes are risk factors for?
pancreatitis
Symptoms for pancreatitis are?
Pain, weight loss jaundice and vomiting are typical
what is Cholangiocarcinoma?
Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancerous (malignant) growth in one of the ducts that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine
What are the symptoms of Cholangiocarcinoma?
Chills; Clay-colored stools; Fever; Itching; Loss of appetite; Pain in the upper right abdomen that may radiate to the back; Weight loss; Yellowing of the skin (jaundice
What is Cholestasis?
Cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is blocked.
What are the symptoms of choleostasis?
Clay-colored or white stools; Dark urine; Inability to digest certain foods; Itching; Nausea or vomiting; Pain in the right upper part
What is Cholecystitis?
cholecystitis is a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder that causes severe abdominal pain
What are the symptoms of cholecystitis?
The main symptom is pain in the upper right side or upper middle of the abdomen. The pain may: Be sharp, cramping
All the following are major funtions of the liver?
excretory, metabolic, storage, neuroendocrine
nutrients reach the liver from the intestine through the…
portal vein
hepatic artery bring blood from …
heart to liver
lack of bile adversely affects the absorption of all the following vitamins…
D, K, A, E
Which of the following serum enzymes is the most reliable marker of extrahepatic biliary obstruction?
Alkaline Phosphatase
In chronic liver failure there is a marked decrease in blood:
bilirubin
The most common malignant tumor of the liver is…
hepatocellular carcinoma
What is Prothrombin time?
LV function test to measure blood clotting time
What is ERCP?
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in indicative of?
HBV
Unconjugated bilirubin circulates in blood bound by?
Albumin
Which if the following hepatitis viruses is a DNA virus w/ protein envelope that contains several distinct antigens, such as surface antigens?
Hep B
What is the most common cause of cirrhosis?
alcohol
What Is the most common Hep visus to cause cirhossis?
Hep C
In cirhossis the liver is?
covered in fibrin or pus
Complications of cirhossis include all the following:
ascites, splenomegaly, esophogeal varices, hypoalbunemia
accumulation of fluidin abdominal cavity in patients with cirhossis is associated with hypersecretion of which hormone?
aldosterone
which aspect of cirhossis accounts for the development of esophogeal varices?
portal hypertension
In Wilson's disease there is decreased?
Ceruplasmin