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69 Cards in this Set

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Heart murmurs which remain constant in character and intensity over a long period of time would be characteristic of ______
Rheumatic heart disease
The complication most often seen with pure right-sided heart failure is _____
Chronic lung disease
Right heart failure causes:
Ankle edema, distended neck veins, splenomegaly
The _____ artery is least likely to be involved by atherosclerosis
pulmonary
These cells are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic plaque
Fibroblasts, macrophages, platelets, smooth muscle cells
T or F: African Americans have a higher predisposition to developing atherosclerosis than caucasions
False
T or F: when atheroma occur in the aorta they are most common in the thoracic aorta just above the aortic valve
False
Angina pectoris is
a symptom complex, aggravated by cold weather excercise or heavy meals, usually relieved by nitroglycerin
Cause of ventricular aneurysm is
myocardial infarct
The most common cause of sudden death from myocardial infarction is
arrhythmia
The least likely complication of myocardial infarction is
rupture of the right ventricle
Rupture of the heart is most likely to follow
myocardial infarction
Chronic ischemic heart disease is characterized by
diffuse small myocardial scares, evolution to congestive heart failure, myocardial atrophy, severe stenosing coronary atherosclerosis
Rheumatic fever does not typically include
fever
Causes of death in patients with rheumatic heart disease include
bacterial endocarditis, embolization from damaged valves, heart failure
The least likely finding in a patient with rheumatic fever is
bacteria in the heart valves
The organism most frequently responsible for acute bacterial endocarditis is
staphylococcus aureus
Acute infective endocarditis of which valve is most likely to be associated with sudden death?
Aortic
What predisposes one to the development of subacute endocarditis
congenital valve deformities, rheumatic heart disease
The most frequent cause of mitral stenosis is
rheumatic heart disease
Myocarditis is most frequently caused by
viruses
Systemic arterial hypertension leads to
left ventricular hypertrophy
Cardiac tamponade is best defined as
Cardiac compression due to fluid in the pericardium
A dissecting aortic aneurysm most commonly begins in the
ascending aorta
Aneurysms of the aortic arch are most commonly caused by
syphilis
In general the most serious and destructive aspect of rheumatic fever is a result of
Fibrinous pericarditis
Bacterial endocarditis is associated with
septic embolization
Cardiogenic shock is a result of
acute myocardial infarction
The most common site of cardiac infarct is
left ventricle
The basic lesion of atherosclerosis is
Fibrofatty plaques in large and meduim size muscular arteries and elstic arteries
The most common congenital cardiac anomaly is
ventricular septal defect
The most common location of acute myocardial infarction is
anterior portion of IVS and LV Wall
Which category of heart disease is responsible for the greatest number of deaths in the US
Atherosclerotic
Complications of myocardial infarction might include
Hypertension, Rupture of LV wall
These issues may result in left ventricular hypertrophy
Aortic stenosis, Coarctation of the aorta, systemic hypertension
Ischemic heart disease is caused by
decreased coronary artery blood flow
Mitral stenosis frequently occurs from
hypertension
What are the risk factors for developing atherosclerosis?
Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellutus
What is the most common cause of right heart failure
Left heart failure
T or F In the aorta, atheromatous plaques are most common in the thoracic aorts just above the aortic valve
False
Longstanding pure mitral stenosis may cause
Dialation and hypertrophy of left atrium, pulmonary venous hypertension, thrombus in left atrium
Fibrinous pericarditis wil NOT usually lead to symptoms of
angina
In post myocardial infarction the what blood levels would be elevated
CPK
57 year old African American woman presents to the ER with complaints of intermittent fever, she has been told she has a heart murmer, the present murmur is different in character and intesity from the last. In addition subungual petechial hemorrhages are noted. The most likely diagnosis would be
Hypertensive heart disease
Cardiogenic shock would most likely result from
Acute myocardial infarction
Clinical symptoms related to low cardiac output are
dialated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Elevated serum levels of what are associated with the development of atherosclerosis
Beta lipoproteins, Low density lipoproteins, pre-beta lipoproteins
Over time the condition that is least likely to cause cor-pulmonae is
left heart failure
Most typers of vasculitis are thought to be induced by
infectios agents
One effect of left sided heart failure is
Pulmonary congestion and edema
The most common form of hypertension is known as
Essential
Spontaneous (non traumatic) hemorrhages of the CNS are most often due to
Hypertension
A malignant tumor arising from connective tissue would be called a
fibrosarcoma
What would indicate a neoplasm is growing rapidly
hemorrhage, necrosis
Anti-oncogenes represent
normal genes that prevent neoplasia
Benign tumors are
usually slow growing, grow by expansion and compression of surrounding tissues
Lymphoma is benign or malignant?
malignant
Leiomysarcoma is a
primary malignant neoplasm
Hamartoma is
not considered a true neoplasm
The best method to determine the malignancy of a neoplasm is by
nuclear morphology
Evidence of radid tumor growth includes
Hemorrhage, necrosis
Benign tumors cannot
metastasize
A benign tumor of epithelial origin which forms cystic spaces and glandular structires would be called
Follicular cytosarcoma
A malignant tumor of epithelial origin is a
carcinoma
A neoplasm is characterized by
autonomous growth
Clinical manifestations of bronchogenic carcinomas are
hemoptysis, weight loss, hormone production, bronchial obstruction
Lung cancer is
One of the most common cancers, is more common in males than females
A benign tumor of smooth muscle is called a
leiomyoma
The most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults is
glioblastoma multiforme