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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Chemical substances that exert a physiologic effect on other cells
Endocrine Hormones
Chemical substances that are transported by the bloodstream for action at distant targets
Major Factors of the Endocrine System (4)
1) Growth and development
2) Regulation of cellular metabolism (carbohydrates, fats, proteins)
3) Coordination of reproductive systems
4) Maintenance of homeostasis (fluid and electrolyte balance)
General Pathology (definition)
Disorders characterized by either hypofunction or hyperfunction of an endocrine system (gland and/or hormone)
Primary = Malfunction of the hormone-producing gland
Secondary = Malfunction of the structures (hypothalamus/pituitary gland) that control the hormone-producing gland
Functional = Malfunction of the target cells
Overproduction of a hormone.
Due to excessive stimulation and hyperplasia of an endocrine gland from inflammation or injury to the "controlling" endocrine gland
Due to neoplasm
Underproduction of a hormone
Due to endocrine gland inflammation, injury, neoplasm, or aging.
Due to unresponsiveness of target cells from a lack of or malfunction of hormone receptors or an impaired post hormone receptor mechanism due to target cell injury
Rehabilitation Issues
Be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of endocrine pathologies
Patients may be referred with musculoskeletal problem with an underlying endocrine pathology
Endocrine pathology may influence the PT intervention and the response to the PT intervention
Diabetes Mellitus (definition)
Chronic, systemic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and disruption of metabolim resulting from defects in secretion of insulin, action of insulin, or both
Hormone produced in the pancreas, secreted into the bloodstream, ultimately interacts with target cells
Insulin normally maintains a balanced blood glucose level by regulating the transfer of glucose from teh plasma into the cytoplasm of the cells
Type I - Dependent - Absolute deficiency of insulin production and secretion
Type II - Non-Dependent - Combination of cellular resistance to insulin action and an inadequate insulin secretory response.
Type I (etiology)
Cell-mediated autoimmune (environmental and genetic factors) or idiopathic destruction of the insulin producing cells (beta cells) in the pancreas. Rate of beta cell destruction is variable
Type I (risk factors)
Presence of Type I DM in sibling or parent
Type II (etiology)
Unknown, combination of genetic and environmental factors
Type II (risk factors)
Family history, ethnicity (non-whites), obesity, age (>45), history of gestational DM or delivery of a baby weighing >9 pounds, preiously identified impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia (HDL's <35, TG's > 250)
Actions of Insulin (3)
1) Dec. carbohydrates (glucose) in blood by increasing carb transport and storage in tissues (glycogen). Inhibits glucose production.
2) Dec. lipids (glycerol, fatty acids) in the blood by inc. lipid transport and storage in the tissues (fat droplet). Inhibits lipolysis
3) Dec. proteins (amino acids) in the blood by increasing protein transport and storage in the tissues. Inhibits proteolysis
Type I: glucose (pathogenesis)
Decreased utilization of glucose due to the inability of glucose to enter target cells. Increased production of glucose
Type I: glucose (systemic effects)
Blood glucose levels rise (hyperglycemia). Results in glycosuria (glucose in the urine) and osmotic fluid loss, which can lead to hypovolemia (low plasma volume)
Type I: lipid (pathogenesis)
Increased lipid metabolism (breakdown) to make lipid stores available for energy.
Type I: lipid (systemic effects)
Results in formation of ketones, which accumulate in the blood and are excreted through teh kidneys and lungs, and can lead to acid-base and fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Blood lipid levels rise
Type I: protein (pathogenesis)
Impaired protein utilization due to the inability of amino acids to enter target cells
Type I: protein (systemic effects)
Results in a decrease of protein synthesis and an increase of protein breakdown
Type II (pathogenesis)
Similar to Type I. Metabolic problems associated with inappropriate fat and protein metabolism do not occur as severely since there is some endogenous insulin production and utilization
Signs and Symptoms (8)
Weight Loss
Blurred Vision
Weakness and Fatigue
Long Term Effects (6)
Impaired Wound Healing
Musculoskeletal Problems
Skin Ulceration