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20 Cards in this Set

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What is meant by the terms agenesis? What are some expamples of this disorder in domestic animals?
complete failure of a tissue or organ to develop (the tissue or organs absent)

e.g. renal agenesis, gull bladder agenesis, testicular agenesis
What is meant by the terms aplasia? What are some expamples of this disorder in domestic animals?
failure of a tissue or organ to grow (the tissue or organ is present but is small and rudimentary,start developing but never reach completion)

e.g. segmental aplasia of intestine or uterine horn
What is meant by the terms hypoplasia? What are some expamples of this disorder in domestic animals?
failure of an organ or tissue to reach its normal size (incomplete growth, small size)

e.g. renal hypoplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia
What is meant by the terms congenital dysplasia? What are some expamples of this disorder in domestic animals?
abnormal development resulting in disorganization of cells and hence architectural definition of dysplasia and as such the term is use
What is meant by the terms atresia? What are some expamples of this disorder in domestic animals?
absence or closure of a normal opening

e.g. intestinal atresia, atresia ani
What is meant by the term homeostasis in terms of cell function?
Maintenance of intracellular conditions compatible with cell survival and normal function despite physiological changes in the cell's environment
What are the potential consequences of exposing cells to severe physiological stresses or pathological stimuli?
Cells may undergo adaptation to escape injury (change in the metabolic or other functional activity of the cell) which is often associated with structural changes in the affected cells.
If the limits of adaptive response to a stimulus are exceeded, the cell ma undergo reversible injury or irreversible injury leading to cell death
What is meant by the terms atrophy?
a decrease in cell size or tissue mass after normal growth has been achieved
What is meant by the terms hypertrophy?
an increase in cell size or an increase in tissue mass due to an increase in cell size
What is meant by the terms hyperplasia?
an increase in tissue mass due to an increase in cell number
What is meant by the terms metaplasia?
transformation of a mature differentiated cell type into another cell type
What is the difference between atrophy and hypoplasia?
Atrophy is acquired adaptive decrease in cell size or tissue mass and involves structures that are already fully developed. Hypoplasia is a congenital disorder in which an organ or tissue fail to reach its normal size.
What happens to the cell size and functional activity in atrophy?
both decrease in order to survive
What are the characteristic gross features of atrophic tissues and organs?
- reduced size and weigh of tissue or organ
- if the affected organ has a capsule, it may be winkled
- may be firmerthan normal due to condensation of connective tissue ± fibrosis
- may be pale due to fibrofatty c.t. replacement
- may be discoloured brown-yellow due to lipofuscinosis
Is atrophy reversible?
potentially reversible

If atrophy has been prolonged, complete return to normal may be impossible due to loss of ells or connective tissue replacement
What are some examples of physiological atrophy of tissues in domestic animals?
●Involution(退化)of organ and structure
- involution of embryonic structures
- involution of the thymus at puberty

●Cyclic changes in genitalia
-involution of the corpus luteum

●Ageing
Which tissues undergo prominent atrophy with aging?
reproductive organs first
muscles
bones
later the nervous system
What are the mechanisms responsible for aging of organisms and of their cells?
Pathogenesis → multifactorial, regulated by specific genes, receptors and signals

cellular aging involves a progressive decline in the capacity of cells to undergo mitotic division and progressive accumulation of cellular and molecular injury due to extrinsic and intrinsic "wear and tear" factors
What is meant by the term serous atrophy of fat? what does i indicate?
atrophy of fat with prolonged mebilisation of stored lipid in which the normal solid, cream-white fat becomes water, gelatinous, translucent and often pale pink and may shrink rapidly on exposure to air due to an abnormally high water content

This indicates inadequate nutrition, emaciation/cachecic
What is meant by the term abiotrophy?
genetically programmed, premature or accelerated degeneration of mature cell types