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29 Cards in this Set

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Macrophage Presenting
To T cells

*** b-cells don't need the 'introduction'
B-Lymphociytes coating
Membrane-bound immunoglobulin

Receptor site for antigens
T-Cell Growth Factors
Interleukins

IL-2

Cyclosporing & Glucocorticoids inhibit this growth factor
TcRs
T-Cell Receptor Sites

similar to antibody molecules of B-cell (but NOT secreted during immune process)
Plasma Cells
Activated/ Sensitized B-cell.

Secretes antibodies
Natural Killer Cells
Considered Innate

Don't need previous exposure.

Lysing of tumors and virus-infected cells
Epitope
Antigenic Determinant

Key to lock
Most potent antigenic materials
Protein

*** other can be antigenic- carbs,lipids, nucleic acids
Immunogen
Antigen capable of effectuating successful immune response
Properties of Immunogens
1. Foreignness

2. High molecular weight

3. Chemical Complexity
Secondary Lymphoid tissues
Spleen
Lymph Nodes
Tonsils
Mudosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
Activities of Compliment Cascade
Effect Lysis of foreign or malignant cells.

Chemotactic attraction of leukocytes to inflammation

Increase vascular permeability

Anaphylaxis

MAC
MAC
Membrane Attack Complex

From Compliments

Produce direct injury to cells by disrupting integrity of membrane
Activation of Complement
Classical (only in higher animals)

Alternative (lower & higher animals)
Classical Pathway
Enzyme cascade with complements 1-9
Causes launch of classic complement cascade
Antigen-antibody complex binds with C1
Cleaving of Complements
C3: C3a (chemotaxis) & C3b (Opsinization)

C5: C5a (chemotaxis; increased permeability) & C5b (becomes part of MAC
Make up MAC
Membrane Attack Complex

C5b through C9
Launch of Alternative Pathway
Lipopolysaccharides, Bacterial endotoxins, some bacterial and yeast cell walls

Initiation is with above elements with any below:

C3b serum, factor b, factor d
(these create enzyme to cleave C3-- the rest is normal)
Anergy
Theory that self-reactive lymphocytes are inactivated (versus deleted/ destroyed)

Part of Immunotolerance
MHC
Major Histocompatibility Complex

Region of genome that codes for proteins vital to immune proess
MHC Protein Functions
Develop immunotolerance during fetal times

Activate mature T cells
Interleukin 1
Secreted by APC and is a cofactor for presentation

First signal

Class II proteins
Interleukin 2
Secreted by helper T

Second Signal

Class I protein
Rheumatoid Arthritis HLA
DR4 (6%)
Ankylosing Spondylitis HLA
B27 (87%)
First Signal for Antigenic Response
APC cell (combined with Class II proteins) presents to Helper T cell
Second Signal for Antigenic Response
Helper T Cell secretes Class I to trigger Killer T
Interleukens that stimulate B Cells
IL-4 & IL-5

*** from T cells