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76 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
not producing internal echoes on ultrasound
anechoic
interaction produces two high-energy photons(gamma rays) in opposite directions (separated by 180 degrees)
annihilation
produces cross-sectional tomographic images by first scanning a slice of tissue from multiple angles with a narrow x-ray beam
computed tomography
attenuation of a specific tissue relative to that of water
CT number
relies on the movement of molecules and random thermal motion
diffusion imaging
equipment designed to image two modalities simultaneously and integrate the images
direct fusion
producing a relatively strong reflection in ultrasound
echogenic
full magnetization on T1 weighted images to ensure a large contrast difference between fat and water
fat- suppressed images
allows the localization of specific regions of the brain that correspond to various functions
functional MR(fMR)
A sodium iodide crystal detects the ionizing radiation emitted from the patient
gamma camera
spiral continuous motion
helical
requires software to fuse two imaging modalities
integrated imaging
structures that have the same echogenicity
isoechoic
A strong magnet producing radio frequencies at specified intervals and receiving a return signal to produce an image
MRI
using radio pharmaceuticals to produce ionizing radiation which is detected by gamma camera to produce image
nuclear medicine
uses radiopharmaceutical that emits a positron and is detected by a moving gamma camera
PET
drug tagged to emit ionizing radiation
radiopharmaceutical
gamma camera moves around the patient and detects the gamma rays produced by the radiopharmaceutical
SPECT
most common pules used in MRI
spin echo
equilibrium high energy protons return to the low energy state
T1 weighted images
images relies upon local dephasing of spins
T2 weighted images
images produced by high frequency sound waves emitted from the transducer that are echoed back to produce an image
Ultrasound
takes all the raw CT data density information and uses them to simulate three dimensional images
volume rendered imaging
localized area of chronic inflammation often with central necrosis
granuloma
caused by previous surgery, peritonitis, or external hernia
small bowel obstruction
white blood cells engulf and enzymatically digest infecting organisms and cellular debris
phagocytosis
rupture of a blood vessel
hemorrhage
caused by bowel telescoping into itself
intussusception
appears as persistent collection of barium surrounded by halo of edema
gastric ulcer
one of two inflammatory processes of unknown cause that primarily affects young adults
ulcerative colitis
two major types: cholesterol and pigment
cholelithiasis
neoplastic process occurring commonly in the head, causing the gland to have an irregular contour and semisolid pattern on the sonogram
pancreatic adenocarcinoma
primary liver cancer
hepatocellular carcinoma
protein and lipid digesting enzymes become activated within the pancreas causing the organ to ingest itself
acute pancreatitis
sudden attack of inflammation of the gallbladder
Acute cholecystitis
neoplastic growth with about half of the occurrences in the rectum and sigmoid most often in older men
colonic carcinoma
dilated veins in the esophageal wall
esophageal varices
esophageal lumen does not develop separately from trachea
tracheoesophageal fistula
fungus or virus causing a cobblestone pattern caused by deep ulcerations and sloughing of the mucosa
infectious esophagitis
inflammation of the stomach presenting an abnormal surface pattern in the gastric mucosa
acute gastritis
inflammatory process of the stomach and duodenum caused by the action of acid
peptic ulcer
most common manifestation of peptic ulcer
duodenal ulcer
occur mostly in the distal stomach and are of glandular origin
stomach cancer
tumor is of squamous cell type and occurs at the esophagogastric junction
esophageal carcinoma
much of the stomach lies within the thoracic cavity
hiatal hernia
normal squamous lining is destroyed and replaced with columnar epithelium
Barrett's esophagus
outpouching herniating through the muscular layer of the esophagus
Diverticula
an inflammatory process usually of the proximal colon involving multiple noncontiguous segments (skip lesions)
crohn's colitis
severe mucosal atrophy causing thinning or an absence of mucosal folds
chronic atrophic gastritis
necrosing inflammation in the out pouches representing acquired herniation
Diverticulitis
disorder of intestinal motility in which fluid and gas do not progress normally
Adynamic illeus
chronic granulomatous inflammatory disorder of unknown cause
crohns disease
Reflects the attenuation of a specific tissue relative to that of water, which is arbitrarily assigned a CT number of 0 and appears gray on the image
CT number
A loss in the uniformity of individual cells and their architectural orientation
Dysplasia
reduction in the size or number of cells in an organ or tissue, with a corresponding decrease in function
Atrophy
Blood trapped within the body tissue
hematoma
localized area of ischemic necrosis within a tissue or organ produced by occlusion of either its arterial supply or its venous drainage
infract
New growth
neoplasia
closely resemble their cells of origin in structure and function
Benign
highly malignant tumors arising from connective tissues such as bone, muscle and cartilage
sarcomas
malignant neoplasms of epithelial cell origin effects epithelial tissues, skin and mucous membranes lining body cavities
carcinomas
alterations in the DNA structure that may become permanent hereditary changes if they affect the gonadal cells
mutations
associated with pus formation
suppurative inflammation
assesses aggressiveness, or degree of malignancy
grading
study of diseases that can cause abnormalities in the structure or function of various organ systems
pathology
the initial response of the body tissues to local injury
inflammation
outpouching representing acquired herniations of mucosa and submucosa through weak points in the muscular layer
diverticulosis
perforation permitting fecal material to enter the peritoneum, causing general peritonitis if not treated
appendictitis
twisting of the bowel on itself leading to intestinal obstruction
volvulus
complete rupture of the esophageal wall
preforation
gas forming organisms that are facilitated by stasis and ischemia due to cystic duct obstruction
emphysematous cholecystitis
loculated fluid collections resulting from the process associated with acute pancreatitis
pseudocyst
extensive calcification in the wall of the gallbladder
porcelain gallbladder
most common neoplastic process involving the liver
hepatic metastasis
chronic process of destruction of liver cells and structure causing end-stage liver disease
cirrhosis
any symptomatic condition or structural changes due to reflux of stomach content into esophagus
GERD