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31 Cards in this Set

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Why are necrotic cells eosinophilic?
loss of basophilic RNA

denatured proteins are eosinophilic
Myelin Figures
phospholipid precipates in cytoplasm

in necrotic cells
Karyolysis
fading basophilia due to DNA lysis
Pyknosis
increased basophilia due to nuclear shrinkage
Karyorrhexis
fragmentation of pyknotic nucleus
Mechanism of Reperfusion Injury
Ischemia---> Anaerobic Glycolysis -----> HYPOXANTHINE

reintroduce O2:
Hypoxanthine ----(xanthine oxidase)---> OH and O2 radicals
Elevated levels of Creatine Kinase MB
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

necrotic tissue leaks intracellular contents into plasma
Elevated levels of Cardiac Troponin
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

necrotic tissue leaks intracellular contents into serum
Superoxide Dimutase
(2xO2.) + (2H+) --> O2 + H2O2

makes O2 and H2O2
Catalase
(2x H2O2) ------> O2 + H2O

makes oxygen and water
Radical Neutralizer: makes water and oxygen
Catalase

hydrogen peroxide ----> O2 + H2O
Radical Neutralizer: makes H2O2 and O2
Superoxide Dimutase

2x O2. +2H+ -----> H2O2 + O2
NADPH Oxidase
NADPH + 2O2 ↔ NADP+ + 2O2°- + H+

produces 2 oxygen radicals
Glutathione
2xGSH + 2OH. ---> 2xH2O + GSSG

disulfide bridge (between cysteines) reduced --> e- donor
What does cyanide interfere with?
Cytochrome Oxidase

(in inner mitochondrial membrane)
What do mercurial compounds interfere with?
sulfahydryl groups
Lipid peroxidation of membranes (targets):
double bonds of unsaturated membrane lipids
DNA fragmentation via free radicals:
single strand breaks in DNA
Free radical damage of proteins (target):
sulfahydryl- mediated protein cross-linking
Necrosis Nuclear Effects
-flocculation of chromatin
Caspases
cysteine proteases which can triggger apoptosis
Interleukin Converting Enzyme
prototype enzyme for the caspase cascade
BCL-2
pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic

over-expression of bcl-2 gene anti-apoptotic
IAP
inhibitors of apoptosis

prevent apoptosis by inhibiting caspases
Hormone / Growth Factor Withdrawl
Apoptosis
(Examples)
-endometrial chedding in menstral cycle

-regression of lactating breast

-uterine atrophy following pregnancy
Granzyme B
serine protease of CTLs

activates caspases in target cells
p53
increased levels halt cell at G1 for DNA repair

if DNA repair not possible, p53 initiates apoptosis

NO p53 LEADS TO CARCINOGENESIS
a high level of p53 will result in _______
halt of cell in G1 for DNA repair

if not possible, initiates apoptosis
Bcl-2 over-expression most associated with __________
lymphomas

B-Cell Lymphoma-2

most are anti-apoptotic
some are pro-apoptotic
Autophagy
lysosomal auto-destruction

-organelles
-long-lived proteins
-protein aggregates
Paraptosis
Type III PCD

-swelling of the ER
-caspases are not active