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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mobitz I
117. Usually due to inferior MI. Rarely goes into 3rd degree block.
118. Txt w/ Atropine or Isoproterenol.
Mobitz II
BBB association. Often goes to 3rd degree AV block. Usually due to anterior MI.
P wave
Atrial depol.
a wave
LA contraction
T wave
Vetricular repol.
Wavy fibers
Eosinophilic bands of necrotic myocytes. Early sign of MI.
Janeway’s lesions
Acute bacterial endocarditis.
125. Nontender, erythematous lesions of palms & soles.
Osler’s nodes
Subacute bacterial endocarditis.
127. Tender lesions of fingers & toes.
Thiamine defcy
Wet Beri Beri heart. Dilated (congested) cardiomyopathy due to chronic alcohol consumption
129. Dyr Beri Beri = peripheral neuropathy
130. Wernicke-Korsakoff = ataxia; confusion; confabulation; memory loss
Fibrinous Pericarditis
Associated w/ MI: Dressler’s
Serous Pericarditis
Associated w/ nonbacterial; viral (Coxsackie) infection; immunologic reaction.
Friction Rub
Pericarditis association
Hemorrhagic Pericarditis
Associated w/ TB or neoplasm
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
Aka infiltrative cardiomyopathy that stiffens the heart
136. Due to amyloidosis in the elderly
137. Due to , also see schaumann & asteroid bodies in young (<25 yoa).
PML’s infectious agent
JC Virus (Papovavirus = dsDNA, naked icosahedral capsid)
↑Pc (more seeps out)
140. ↓πc (less reabsorbed)
141. ↑ permeability
142. Block lymphatic drainage
Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease
Commonly see liver cysts & Berry aneurysms along w/ kidney cysts. Hematuria & HTN also
144. 3 cysts in ea. Kidney w/ + family history confirms diagnosis
Malignant HTN & Kidneys
Petehial hemorrhages are seen on kidney surfaces = Flea-Bitten surface = young black men
Nephritic signs
Hematuria; RBC casts; HTN
Nephrotic signs
Proteinuria; Hypoalbuminemia; Edema
Podocyte Effacement seen w/
Minimal Change (Lipoid nephrosis) disease
ASO seen in
Acute post-streptococcal GN (due to βHGASrtep)
150. Anti streptolysin O
Crescentic GN
Rapidly progressive GN – nephritic syndrome
152. Associated w/ multi system disease or post-strep/post infectious glomerular nephritis
Hereditary Nephritis
Alport’s syndrome. X linked
154. Renal disease w/ deafness & ocualr abnormalities
Membranoproliferative GN
Can be secondary to complement deficiency; chronic infections; CLL
156. See tram tracking
TypeI Membrano Proliferative GN
C3 & IgG deposits
TypeII Membrano Proliferative
Only C3 deposits
GN deposits
Aka Dense deposit disease
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
IgM & C3 deposits
Cold agglutinins
Seen in atypical pneumonia
162. It is IgM Ab with specificity for I Ag on adult RBCs
TB in the lymph nodes
Aspirin-Asthma Triad
Nasal polyps – Rhinitis – bronchoconstriction
Ferruginous bodies
Hemosiderin (pigment w/ Fe3-) covered macrophages that have been pahgocytised
Pancoast’s tumor causes
Ulnar nerve pain & Horner’s syndrome
Fatty degeneration
Made up primarily of triglycerides
168. Most commonly due to alcoholism which commonly leads to hepatic cirrhosis
169. Associated w/ CCl4
Cloudy swelling
Failure of cellular Na pump
171. Seen in Fatty degeneration of the liver and in Hydropic (Vacuolar) degeneration of the liver
Hydropic degeneration
Severe form of cloudy swelling
173. Seen with hypokalemia induced by vomitting/diarrhea
Liquefaction necrosis
Rapid enzymatic break down of lipids
175. Seen commonly in Brain & Spinal cord (CNS) injuries
176. Seen in suppurative infections = pus formation
Coagulation necrosis
Result of sudden ischemia
178. Seen in organs w/ end arteries limited collateral circulation) = heart, lung, kidney, spleen
Caseation necrosis
Combination of both coagulation & liquefaction necrosis
180. Seen w/ M. tuberculosis & Histoplasma capsulatum infection
Fibrinoid necrosis
Seen in the walls of small arteries
182. Associated w/ malignant hypertension, polyarteritis nodosa, immune mediated vasculitis
Fat necrosis
Result of lipase actions liberated from pancreatic enzymes
184. Seen w/ Acute pancreatitis = saponification results
Blood in sputum
Pulmonary embolism
Most commonly thrombus from lower extremity vein
From a vein of lower extremities, of a pregnant uterus, in Congestive heart failure, bed ridden
188. As a complicaiton in a pt w/ Pancreatic CA due to ↑d blood coagulability
Saddle embolus
Embolus lodged in bifurcation of pulmonary trunks
190. ↑↑ RV strain = RV & RA dilate = Acute cor Pulmonale
Paradoxical embolism
Right to Left shunt allows a venous embolism to enter arterial circulation
192. Patent ovale foramen or Atrial septal defect
Tuberculoid granuloma
Collection of macrophages w/o caseation
194. Seen w/ Sarcoidosis (non-caseating); Syphilis; Brucellosis and Leprotic infections
Spreading infection due to streptococcus
Prostate Specific Antigen = elevated in prostatic CA
In cases of metastatic carcinoid, txt w/ Methysergide (5HT antagonist)
↑ αFeto Protein
199. Neural tube defects
Carcinoembryonic Antigen = elevated in Colon CA
Chromosome 13
Chromosome 11p
Wilms tumor of the kidney
Vinyl Chloride
Associated w/ Angiosarcoma of the liver
Agent Orange
Contains dioxin
205. Implicated as a cause of Hodgkin;s disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma & soft tissue sarcomas
Parasites & CA
Schistosoma haematobium = Urinary bladder CA
207. S. mansoni = Colon CA
208. Aspergillus flavus = potent hepatocarcinogen
210. Error in tyrosine metabolism due to Homogentisic acid (oxidizes tyrosine)
211. Involving intervertebral disks = Ankylosing Spondilitis = Poker spine
212. See dark urine; dark coloration of sclera, tendons, cartilage
Lead poisoning
Acid fast inclusion bodies
214. ↑ urinary coproprophyrin
215. Anemia: microcytic/ hypochromic
216. Stippling of the basophils
217. Gingival line & lead line in bones: x-ray
218. Mental retardation
Heroin OD, clinically
Massive pulmonary edema w/ frothy fluid from the nostrils
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Small head, small eyes, funnel chest, ASD, mental deficiency, and hirsutism
Atypical mycobacterium
M. kanasasii & M. avium intracellulare
Cold abscesses
Liquefied TB lesions similar to pyogenic abscesses but lacking acute inflammation
Actinomyces isrealli
Farmers infection
224. Lumpy jaw (from chewing grain) & PID (IUD), but most common is due to saprophyticus
Congenital Syphilis
Saddle nose, Saber shin, Hutchinson’s teeth, nerve deafness, interstitial keratitis
Warthin-Finkeledy cells
Reticuloendothelial giant cells on tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen
227. Seen with Rubeola (measles) due to paramyxovirus
Diphyllobothrium latum
Tapeworm infection causing megaloblastic anemia by consuming large amount of vit B12 in the
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
α Hemolytic Streptococci (S. viridans) = usually in pt w/ pre-existing heart problem
Acute Bacterial Endocarditis
Staph aureus, β Hemolytic Streptococci, E. coli
231. Common among drug addicts & diabetics
Mitral Insufficiency
Ruptured papillary muscle
Left Anterior Descending branch
Branch of the Left Coronary artery
234. Highest frequency of thrombotic occlusion
235. MI = anterior wall of the LV, especially in apical part of interventricular septum
Left Circumflex branch
Branch of the Left Coronary artery
237. Occlusion = MI of posterior/lateral wall of the LV
Dissecting Aneurysm
False aneurysm: it is splitting of the media of the aorta
239. Usually accompanied w/ long history of severe hypertension, also seen w/ familial hyperlipidemia,
atherosclerotic disease, Marfan’s Collagen disease
240. Zones of medial necrosis +/- slitlike cysts = Medial Cystic Necrosis of Erdheim
Cor Pulmonale
Right ventricular strain, associated w/ right ventricular hypertrophy
Acute Cor Pulmonale
Sudden right ventricular strain due to a massive pulmonary embolism
Lobular (rather than lobar)
244. Due to Staph aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Klebsiella; E. coli
245. Abscess formation is common
Lobar pneumonia
Due to Strep. Pneumoniae infection (5% due to Klebsiella)
247. Red Hepatization: days 1-3 of the pneumonia
248. Gray Hepatization: days 3-8 of untreated pneumonia
249. Complicaitons: pleural effusion; atelectasia; fibrinous pleuritis; empyema; fibrinous pericarditis;
otitis media
Permanent dilatation of the bronchi – predisposed by chronic sinusitis and post nasal drip
251. Supparation associated
252. Lower lobe > than upper lobe involvement
Cold Agglutinins
Found w/ Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Panlobular Emphysema
α1 – antitrypsin deficiency, causing elastase ↑ = ↑ compliance in the lung
Associated w/ Emphysema = “Bleb” = outpouching - If it ruptures causes Pneumothorax
Farmer’s Lung
Due to Micropolyspora faeni (thermophilic actinomycetes)
Due to M. vulgaris (actinomycetes)
258. Inhalation of sugar cane dust
Silo-Filler’s Lung
Due to Nitrogen dioxide from nitrates in corn
G6PDH Deficiency
Sex-linked chronic hemolytic anemia w/o challenge or after eating fava beans
261. Heinz Bodies appear in RBCs
HbF ↑↑
Sickle Cell Anemia
Multiple Myeloma
Lytic lesions of flat bones (“salt & pepper lesions”) = vertebrae, ribs, skull; Hypercalcemia; Bence-
Jones protein casts
Hodgkin’s Disease
Malignant neoplasm of the lymph nodes causing pruritis; fever = looks like an acute infection
265. Reed Sternberg cells
Polyarteritis Nodosa
Immune complex disease of Ag-Ab complexes on blood vessel wall
267. Half of the immune complexes have Hepatitis B Ag
268. Can see fever; abd.pain; ↓ wt; HTN; muscle aches
Celiac disease due to a gluten-induced enteropathy = small intestine villi are blunted
270. High titers of anti-gliadin Abs & ↑ IgA levels
Regional Enteritis
Crohn’s Disease
272. Association w/ Arthritis; Uveitis; Erythema Nodosum
Whipple’s Disease
Intestinal Lipodystrophy = malabsorption syndrome
Kulchitsky cells
Neural cest cells from which carcinoids arise = of the Bronchi; GIT; Pancreas
Ulcerative Colitis
Inflammatory disease of the colon w/ ↑ colon CA incidence
276. Crypt abscess in the crypts of Lieberkuhn
277. Pseudopolyps when ulcers are deep
278. Not transmural involvement
Vaginal Adenosis
Women exposed to DES (Diethylstilbesterol) in utero before the 18th week of pregnancy
280. Some develop clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina & cervix
Scirrhous Carcinoma
Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma w/ fibrosis – most common type of breast carcinoma
Hofbauer Cells
Lipid laden macrophages seen in villi of Erythroblastosis Fetalis
Retinopathy of Prematurity
Retrolental Fibroplasia = cause of bindness in premies due to high O2 concentrations
IgA deficiency
Pt has recurrent infections & diarrhea w/ ↑ respiratory tract allergy & autoimmune diseases
285. If given blood w/ IgA = develop severe, fatal anaphylaxis reaction
Priamry Sjorgen’s
Dry eyes & dry mouth, arthritis. ↑ risk for B cell lymphoma. HLA-DR3 frequent. Autoimmune
Secondary Sjorgen’s
Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, or systemic sclerosis association
288. RA association shows HLA-DR4
Myocardium. LDH1 higher than LDH2 = Myocardial Infarction
Lung tissue
Liver cells