Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Four histologic features which distinguish benign and malignant tumors.
A: Anaplasia - lack of differentiated features in a cancer cell; usually correlated with the aggressiveness of the tumor; examples of anaplastic cytology:

-Variation in size and shape of cells and cell nuclei (plemorphism)

-Enlarged and hypercroatic nuclei, clumped chromatin, promnent, nucleoli

-Atypical mitosis

-Bizarre cells (tumor giant cells)

B: Mitotic Activity greater than normal

C: Invasion, particulary of blood vessels (hematogenous) and lymphatics

D: Metastasis
Three Steps involved for tumor cell invasion to occur:
A: Binding to the extracellular matrix

B; Degradation of extracellular matrix by proteolytic (breakdown) enzymes

C: Movement of the malignant cell through the interstitial tissue (probably by protruded pseudopodia)
The three Involved for malignant cells to metastasize
INVASION of the circulation by vascular or lymphatic channels

ESCAPE from the circulation by extravasation from the basement membrane.

TUMOR SECRETION of factors that stimulate new vascular growth (angiogenesis) to sustain the new tissue growth.
How cancer is graded by cytology/histology
Grading is based on the

DEGREE of anaplasia, determined by the shape and regularity of the cells and on the number of proliferating cells, and

NUMBER of proliferating cells. Most grading schemes classify tumors into three or four grades of increasing degree of malignancy.
How cancer is staged
The extent of spread (staging) is independent of cytologic grading and is done by the internationally accepted ATNM system:

T - refers to the size of the primary Tumor

N - to the Number and distribution of lymph Node metastases

M - to the presence and extent of distant metastases.
Three major classes of carcinogens, give examples
Chemical - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Physical - UV radiation

Viral - Papilloma virus
Two Mechanisms by which normal genes might become oncogenes
A: A mutation in the structure of the proto-oncogene (normal growth/differetiation genes)

B: An increase in the expression of the proto-oncogene causing overproduction of a normal gene product.
Name the genes that are increasingly being incriinated inthe pathogenesis of both hereditary and spontaneous cancers in humans; briefly describe how these genes normally work to prevent cancer.
Tumor suppressor gene - probably produces a normal gene product that restrains abnormal amounts of cell division; a mutation may create a deficiency of this normal gene product.
Six major paraneoplastic syndromes that cancer may produce in a patient

Anorexia and weight loss

Endocrine Syndromes

Neurologic syndromes

Hematologic syndromes