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23 Cards in this Set

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natural immunity
bodily defense mediated by cells involved in the inflammatory responses, is not affected by prior exposure to offending agent
acquired immunity
bodily defense mediated by specific sensitizing exposure to offending agent (antigen), response is magnified by subsequent exposures to same antigen, acquired by infection or vaccine
T lymphocytes
cells that recognize specific antigens on surface or another cell, and respond by intrinsic factors or exogenous signals from extracellular molecules
CD4 cells
helper T lymphocytes
CD8 cells
killer or cytotoxic T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes
cells that bear membrane immunoglobulin and secrete antibody
natural killer cells
a subgroup of lymphocytes that have the capacity to recognize and kill various tumor and virus-infected cells
mononuclear phagocytes (monos) / macrophages
monos are found in virtually all organs and CT, forming a filtering system for foreign material in blood, play critical role in induction of immune responses and resolution of inflammatory rxns
major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
an intricate system of membrane proteins that is the main target for rejection of transplanted organs
human leukocyte antigen (HLA)
MHC antigen that allow for self-recognition during cell-cell interactions in immune response
hypersensitivity rxn
immune response that results in tissue injury
anaphylaxis
Type 1 hypersensitivity, localized, generalized rxn that occurs immediately after exposure to a previously sensitized antigen
cytotoxic hypersensitivity
Type 2 hypersensitivity rxn caused by IgG or IgM cytotoxic antibodies directed against antigen on cell surfaces or in CT
immune complex disease
Type 3 hypersensitivity involves tissue injury mediated by immune complexes (SLE, RA)
cell-mediated immunity
Type 4 hypersensitivity, an antigen-elicited cellular immune rxn that results in tissue damage but does not require the participation of antibodies
serum sickness
an acute, self-limited disease that occurs 6-8 days after an injection of a foreign protein, characterized by fever, arthralgias, vasculitis, acute kidney disease
delaye-type hypersensitivity
a tissue rxn that occurs in response to subcutaneous injection of a soluble antigen, reaching peak intensity 24-28 hours after injection
hyperacute rejection
occurs within min to hours after organ transplantation, mediated by preformed antibodies
acute rejection
occurs in the first few weeks after tissue transplantation probably involving both cell-mediated and humoral mechanisms
chronic rejection
occurs several months to years after transplantation and show histologic changes very different from acute pattern
graft vs host rxn (GVD)
occurs in bone marrow transplantation when lymphocytes in the grafted marrow reject host tissues, also occurs when immunodeficient patients are transfused with blood products containing HLA incompatible lymphocytes
autoimmunity
immune response generated against self-antigens as a result of a breakdown in ability of immune sys to differentiate between self and non-self antigen
AIDS
chronic, progressive, fatal disease caused by HIV infection and destruction of CD4 lymphocytes leading to impaired immune function and a variety of defects