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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Neoplasm =

Tumor =
Literally "new formation"

Willis - "an abmormal mass of tissue, growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with normal tissue, and persists after stimuli which evoked change is removed"

Latin - "swelling"
general term -> non neoplasms and non-neoplastic lesions (metaplasia, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, choristoma, hamartoma)
Neoplasia =
a process of abnormal, autonomous cell proliferation (autonomous in terms of growth stimuli, although it does still depend on host for nutrition and blood)
Benign =
a locally growing neoplasm with no invasion or metastasis, usually highly differentiated

tend to grow slowly and permit long survival, usually less dangerous than malignant neop but may cause clinical problems

generally designated by the suffix "-oma"
malignant =

cancer =
a neoplasm that can invade or metastasize, or with ability to invade normal tissue and kill patient (ex - aggressive brain neoplasms compress brain parenchyma)

a malignant neoplasm
metastasis =

Primary vs Secondary neoplasm =
aka secondary neoplasm/metastatic neoplasm

refers to the process and the second cancer caused by the growth of cancer cells at a second, separate site

Process: detachment and movement of cancer cells directly in peritoneal cavity, or by invading basement membrane and gaining access to lymph channels or blood vessels - surface molecules on neoplastic cells allow them to "home" to new tissue
Frequent sites: liver and lungs

original vs metastatic neoplasm
Carcinoma =

Adenoma/Adenocarcinoma =

ex. Keratoma/Squamous cell carcinoma =

Small cell carcinoma =

Melanocyte Nevus/Melanoma =
malignant neoplasm with epithelial origin (may be ecto, meso, or endodermally derived). Parenchyma = neoplastic epithelial component, Stroma = non-neoplastic CT component
(im "mixed tumors" stroma and parenchyma are neoplastic)

Term may be modified by adjectives to indicate cell type and degree of differentiation
ex - "squamous cell carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, well or poorly differentiated carcinoma"

Tumor with glandular tissue origin

Tumor of squamous epithelium

Tumor of neuroendocrine cells (these are carcinoid - potentially malignant)

Tumor of melanocyte
Acinar =

Papillary =

Stroma =

forms finger-like growth with central stalk and epithelial surface

vascular CT supporting the parenchyma of an organ or proliferating cells of a neoplasm
Sarcoma =

Fibroma/Fibrosarcoma =

Leiomyoma/Leiomyosarcoma =

Rhabdomyoma/Rhabdomyosarcoma =

Osteoma/Osteosarcoma =

Chondroma/Chondrosarcoma =

Hemangioma/Angiosarcoma =

Lymphangioma/Angiosarcoma =
malignant neoplasm with mesenchymal origin (CT, bone, fat, muscle)

Tumors of fibroblasts

Tumors of smooth muscle cells

Tumor of striated muscle cells

Tumor of Bone

Tumor of Cartilage

Tumor of Blood Vessel

Tumor of Lymphatics
Leukemia =

Lymphoma =

Astrocytoma =
Malignant tumor of bone marrow

Malignant tumor of lymphoid cells

Malignany tumor of astrocytes (neuroglia)
Differentiation =

Anaplasia =

Pleomorphism =

Atypia =

Dysplasia =
extent of morphological and functional resemblance to comparable normal cells

A characteristic of and criterion for ID of malignant transformation - failure of cells to differentiate to normal adult phenotype

varying size and shape/appearance of cells within a tumor

irregular, not conforming to cell type - Nuclei may be larger, darker, with irregular contour

a premalignant change, loss of normal cell and tissue differentiation -> abnormal size, shape and cell organization
Dysplasia =

Classic example:
can be thought of as intermediate between "normal" (low grade dysplasia closer to normal) and "carcinoma" (high grade closer to carcinoma)

HPV infection of uterine cervix -> molecular and morphological changes, low grade may revert to normal or progress to carcinoma
Carcinoma in situ =

Teratoma =

Hamartoma =
a histologically malignant lesion that has not yet invaded

a benign neoplasm arising from a totipotent cell, therefore contains a variety of parenchymal cell types, usually components from all 3 germ layers (teeth, hair, sebaceous glands, etc)

benign and disorderly mass of tissues that are normally present at the site - NOT a neoplasm
Metaplasia =

Hyperplasia =

Hypertrophy =

Choristoma =

Hamartoma =
change from one cell to another cell type in adult tissue
ex - barretts esophagus

increase # of cells
ex - polyp of colon, BPH

increase size of cells
ex - cardiac

"separated" normal cells in abnormal location
ex - pancreatic tissue in esophagus

see previous
ex - pulmonary hamartoma - primarily cartilage, also resp epith, fat, fibrous tissue, BVs
Tissue Type:
Neuroglial cells

Name Malignant Category and Immunoperoxidase Marker:
Carcinoma - Keratin intermed filament

Sarcoma - Vimentin intermed filament

Leukemia/Lymphoma - Cell surface markers (eg LCA)

Melanoma - S100 Protein

eg Astrocytoma - GFAP, neurofilament