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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is acute rhinitis? what causes it?
- the common cold
- caused by viruses (esp. adenovirus)
what is the most common illness?
- acute rhinitis
what are the clinical symptoms of acute rhinitis?
- sneezing
- nasal congestion
- mild sore throat
what are the three types of rhinitis?
1. common cold
2. allergic rhinitis
3. bacterial infection
describe allergic rhinitis
- mediated by IgE type I immune reaction involving mucosal and submucosal mast cells
- increased eosinophils in the peripheral blood and nasal discharge
define: rhinitis
Inflammation of nasal mucosa.
what is acute rhinitis from bacterial infection?
- infection may be superimposed on acute viral or allergic rhinitis by injury to mucosal cilia
- most commonn bugs:
- streptococci
- staphylococci
- H. inf
what can acute rhinitis from bacterial infection cause?
- fibrous scarring
- decreased vascularity
- atrophy of the epithelium and mucous glands
what is sinusitis? what is it caused by?
- inflammation of the paranasal sinuses
- caused by extension of nasal cavity or dental infection
what happens in sinusitis?
- obstructed drainage outlets from the sinuses -> accumulatin of mucoid secretions of exudate
what is laryngitis?
- acute inflammation of the larynx from viruses or bacteria, irritants, or overuse of voice
- inflammation and edema of the vocal cords -> hoarseness
what is acute epiglotittis?
- inflammation of the epiglottis
- may be life threatening in young children
- caused by H. inf
what is acute laryngotracheobronchitis (croup)?
- acute inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and epiglottis
- potentially life threatening in infants
- caused by viral infection
- harsh cough and inspiratory stridor
what are the malignant tumors ofthe nose and nasal sinuses?
1. nasopharyngeal carcinoma
2. squamous cell carcinoma
3. adenocarcinoma
4. plasmacytoma
what is nasopharyngeal carcinoma?
- a malingnant tumor of the nose and sinuses
- most common in SE asia and east africa
- caused by EBV
what is squamous cell carcinoma?
- most frequently occuring malignant nasal tumor
what is the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the nose and throat?
- 5% of the malignant tumors of the nose and throat
what is plasmacytoma?
- plasma cell neoplasm that, in its extraosseous form, makes tumors in the upper respiratory tract
list the tumors of the larynx
- singer's nodule
- laryngeal papilloma
- squamous cell carcinoma
what is the singer's nodule?
- a small, benign laryngeal polyp induced by constant irritation
- most commonly associated by heavy cigarette smoking
- localized to the true vocal cords
what is a laryngeal papilloma?
- a bening neoplasm
- associated with the true vocal cords
- in adults, usually occurs singly, and sometimes undergoes malignant change
- in childen, multiple lesions (from HPV) appear: benign, but offten recur after resection
what is squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx? what is its epidemiology?
- most cmmon maligant tumor of the larynx
- seen in men >40
- associated wtih cigarette smoking and alcoholism
how does squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx initially present?
- persistent hoarseness
what are the different types of squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx?
- glottic carcinoma
- supraglottic and subglottic carcinoma
what is glottic carcinoma?
- a type of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx
- forms on true vocal cords
- most common laryngeal carcinoma and has the best prognosis
what are supraglottic and subglottic carcinomas?
- types of squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx
- less common
- typically has a poorer prognosis