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55 Cards in this Set

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also known as PDD casue severe pervasive impairments in thinking, feeling, language, and athe ability to relate to others
incidence of autisum
in 2006, NIMH 2-6/1000

how often in children being born
Prevelence autism
1 in 1000 children
7.2 per 10000(batshaw)
CDC 1 in 250

how many there currenttly are in the entire pop
prevalence of pdd/NOS
and aspergers
PDD/NOS: 36.1/10000
Aspergers: 8.4/10,000
Diagnosis ofPDD
ICD-9 code 299.0(autism)

diagnoses usually by a ped, child psychologist, or neruologist on the basis of a triad ofbehavioral impairments. 1. impaired soial interaction. 2: impaired communication. 3: restricted and repetitive interests an activities
Diagnostic catagories for PDD
Childhood disintegrative disorder(rare child neurological lose what they have and dont gain it back)

Rett syndrome(only females x linked dom disorder, alot of motor problems, evedint in preschool, continuos hand washing movements)

Aspergers syndrome ( share many behavioral and social features,but not have same impariemtns in language or cognition, often diagnosed after middle school)


PDD-NOs( used for atypical autisum where te 3 catagories for classc autism are not met...often resemble austism but diff in a specific way)
History of autism
Kanner 1943 "early infantile autism"

Bettelheim attrbuted the casue to "cold" mothers

first confused with schizoprenia

1990's neurodevelopment disorder with genetic component

2006 study showed chances of fathering a autistic child is 6x greater if the fther is over 40....1980gillberg study showed higher incedience in older parental age
Etiology of autism
"causes" have not been identified

often diagnosed prior to age of 3, shortly after mmr vacine

digestice concerns gluten is not well tolerated as in celiac disease. csein (milk protein is craved yet precipitates behavorial changes

abnormal protein reactivity

milward et for diet approach to help autistc behaviors

Ashwood: Difference in GI tract of autistic chilren

heavier and larger brains( amygdala and cerebellum
serotonin levels increase
Onset of autism
appears usually in contact, verbal skills, andusually motor skills delayed or dev and then regress. social skills slow to dev. and children are foten miss the "pragmatics" of language such as verbal cues
Current treatment(EI) autism
Early intervention is critical( in pa children with a 25% developmental delay or more in one or more areas of dev quallify for entitlement services that may include OT<SLP< PT and dve terapy...EaLRY INTERVENTION...throught county MH.MR system

on childs 3rd birthday they transition to services of the school system where they are eligable for services through 21 bday.
Current treatment austim
social skills training, motor skkills training, ADL training, lie skills and oter related occupations in OT.

EVALUTAION with the CARS and SP and perhaps te SIPT and motor tests my be done to qualify skills, behavior and dev levels.

PT may work on gross motor and balance first to discontinue

SLP may provide intensive services of long duration to address social skills

Psychological support in the form of individual and group counslling as well as behavior therpay isoften indicated

Medications for managment of anxiety may be used

Nutritional/metabolic evaluation may be included and there are reputable lab tat can guide parents through evalutaion
OT services for Autism
ensory intergrative approach which addresses integration of sensory input for normal adaptive responses

te more sensory input the more we can help to normalize their sensory system

Deep pressure calms often seek activities out wich give them deep presure
Hope for autism
Dr temple: diag. early and mother advocated for intensive therapy... she is a sucessful livestock slugter tech in part becasue she knows how the brain works like a CAD program

Dona Williams: Educator and author who manages her life with med and diet
traits of autism
insitence on sameness; resistance to cange
diff expressing needs
repeating wrods or phrases in place of normal responsive language

laughing for no apparent reasonsowin distress for no reason

diff with mixing with others
not wanting to cuddle
little no eye contact
sustained odd play
spinning objects
obsessivly attached to objects
over -under sensitivity to pain
no real fears or dangers
over or under activity
acts as if deaf, no responsivness to verbal cues
Associated conditon with autism
MR: 2/3-3/4 of autistic disorders
Epilspsy: 25-30%
medical/gentic disorders
tourettes: 4-30%
fragile X: 60%
tuberous sclerosis: 1-4%
neurobehavioral syndrome tha begins in early childhood and is diagnosed in individuals who display dev inappropriate levels of inattention or hperactivity wit impariments in adaptive funtionoing at home, school and or social situations.
DSMV criteria
at least six sympthoms of inattention or at lest six symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity lasting 6 months
ADHD/combined type
displays a significant numer of six sympthoms from each of the clusters and eveident before age of seven, persist atleats 6 months and across settings, represent an impairment and cannot be accounted for by another disorder

most common form
ADHD/predom inaatentive type
do not display significant levels of hyperactivity but who have significant problems in maintaining attention.

ed impairments are the most prom diff experienced ration of girls to boys is higher more equal gender ration

fewer disruptive beaviros
ADHD/hyperactivty disorder, predominantly impulsive/hyperactive type
children who display sig levels of attention problems in the presence of hyperactivity ad impulsitvity

young children believed to have ADHD combined type
ADHD/hyperativty disorder. NOS
individual wo have significnt ifuntional impariments from the sympthoms of ADHD but who ma not meet the strit riteria for the number of sympthoms or age of onset.
Prevelence ADHD
3:1-6:1 male to female
50-60% will cont into adulthood
epidemiology ADHD
over diagnosed ADHD and over treated and under

controversy bc it is diff to distinguish from other disorders

heredity-80% of cases
ech child with parent with aDHD have a 50% cance
identical twins other sib has 55-92%
three genes have been identified: D4 dopamine receptor, dopamine transporter gene(DAT1) and the D2 dop receptor gene

prenatal exposure to cig, lead, alch, cocaine
brain infections
inborn metab errors
genetic disorders
Structural and functional brain diff
fontal lobe: comprimised in its role of proc stimuli and coordinating app cog, emotinal, and motor repsonses
cerebellum and basal gang
all smaller and less active

hypothesis is that ADHD is charac. by ypoactive frontal-striatal-cerebllar pathways that are functionally enhanced by increasing dopaminergic transmission with stim med
associated impairments to aDHD
Deficiets in executive function:
academic unerachievement:
adaptive skills impaired:
dev coordination disorder(fine and gross motor)
sleep diff
accidental and nonaccidental injusy

poor social skills, peer rejection , low slef esteem, anxiety about performance in certain situations
tratment of ADHD
Pschosocial interventions:
beh managment techniques, socail skills intervention
educational interventions:
medications: ridalin
family therapy
comorbid disorders with ADHD
Tic disorder
inernalizing disorders
conduct disorders
seizures disorders(20%)
learning disabilities
a disorer in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest in imperfe ability tolisten, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calcualtions.
limitations to the def of SLD
fails to define core features
no guidelines for basic psychological processes or imperfect ability

;imitaions in the discrepency model of identifiction( one stand dev diff b/t predicted achievement based on ability(iq) and academic achievment.)
Educational cat of SLD
readin comprehension(most prevelant):
word reading(basic reading)
math reasoning:
numerical operations
listening comprehension
written expression
oral expression
Prevelence of SLD
5% of total school age pop

4:1 ration
subtyping SLD
Educational divisions
impairment areas
processes involved
what SLD is not
excluded problems related to vision, hearing, motor dis, MR, emotional disturbance, environemental, cultural, econ disadvantages
specific reading disability
most common SLD 80%
disorder in identifying processing or interpreting written words
methodsof identification of SLD
inpsychological and educational testingterdisciplinary
associated impairments with SLD
executive functions(metacog/frontal lobe)
socail skills
emotinal and behavioral disorders
intervetnion strategies for SLD
school based(classroom alternative learning)
social skills training
vocational approaches
nontraditiaonl app
outcome of SLD
linked to severity of deficiet, age at diagnosed and intervention, IQ score, comorbi conditions, SES, motivation to learn, family support.
impact on occupational performance SLD
school function
social engagment
childhood and adult occupations
signs of learning disabilities in preschool
Speaks later than most children
Pronunciation problems
Slow vocabulary growth, often unable to find the right word
Difficulty rhyming words
Trouble learning numbers, alphabet, days of the week, colors, shapes
Extremely restless and easily distracted
Trouble interacting with peers
Difficulty following directions or routines
Fine motor skills slow to develop
signs of SLD in k-4 grade
Slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds
Confuses basic words (run, eat, want)
Makes consistent reading and spelling errors including letter reversals (b/d), inversions (m/w), transpositions (felt/left), and substitutions (house/home)
Transposes number sequences and confuses arithmetic signs (+, -, x, /, =)
Slow to remember facts
Slow to learn new skills, relies heavily on memorization
Impulsive, difficulty planning
Unstable pencil grip
Trouble learning about time
Poor coordination, unaware of physical surroundings, prone to accidents
signs of SLD in 5-8 grade
Reverses letter sequences (soiled/solid, left/felt)
Slow to learn prefixes, suffixes, root words, and other spelling strategies
Avoids reading aloud
Trouble with word problems
Difficulty with handwriting
Awkward, fist-like, or tight pencil grip
Avoids writing assignments
Slow or poor recall of facts
Difficulty making friends
Trouble understanding body language and facial expressions
signs in highschool
Continues to spell incorrectly, frequently spells the same word differently in a single piece of writing
Avoids reading and writing tasks
Trouble summarizing
Trouble with open-ended questions on tests
Weak memory skills
Difficulty adjusting to new settings
Works slowly
Poor grasp of abstract concepts
Either pays too little attention to details or focuses on them too much
Misreads information
visual impairments
describes vsion that can not be fully correted by ordinary perscription lenses, med treatment, or surgery. the term visual impairments inculdes condtions ranging from the presence of good usuable vision, low vision, or to the sece of any sight at all
"visual imparments"
troubel reading ordianry newspaper even with correction
" severve vI"
unbel to read ordinary newspapers wven with correction
legal blindness
visual conditions that when present , cannote eligibity for gov or other benefits and services

visul acutiy of 20/200 or worse in the better eye with the best correction or visual field of no more then 20 degrees
low vision
less then 20/60 but equl to or better then 20/400 in the better eye with the best poss correction
VA of 20/400or corresponding vf loss in the better eye with best correction. loss of walk about vision.
VI prevelence
38 million ppl with blindness
110 million with low vision

toatl 148 million ppl
worldwide ith severe vI

1.3 million legally blind
8.7 million low vision

10 million blind and vi in the US

5.5 older then 65

55,200 legally blind child.
prevelence VI
.7% world wide with blindness
.3% in market economies
.6% china
1% india
1.4 % in africa

nine out of ten of those that are bild live in the dev countries

more then 2/3 could be avoided by applying exsisting knowledge and tech.
Employment and Vi
46% americans with VI employed
32% legally blind
orientation and mobiliaty` Vi
10900 use canes
7000 use dogs
epidemiology and race VI
80% white americans
18% blacks
2% other
8% hispanic

balcks are overrepresented among ind with VI