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32 Cards in this Set

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acessory breast tissue can often be found inwhat two locations
anterolaterla chest wall and axillary fossa
describe the embryologic development of supernumerary nipples/breast
result from persistence of epidermal thickenings along the milk line extending from the axilla to the perineum both below the adult breast and above it in the anterior axillary fold
the pathogensis of acute mastitis
during the early weeks of nursing the breast is rendered vulnerable to bacterial infection by the development of cracks and fissures in the nipples
the two most common etiologic agents of acute mastitis
from the portal of entry staphylococcus aureus usually or streptococci less commonly invade the breast substance
fat necrosis of breast
focal necrosis of fat tissue in the breast followed by inflammatory reaction that tends to occur as an isoloated sharply localized process in one breast
major clincal signifgance of fat necrosis of the breast
it is commonly confused for tumor when fibrosis has created a clincially palpable mass or focal calcification seen on mammography
pathogensis of fibrocystic changes of the breast
hormonal imbalances are considered to be basic to development of this disorder excess estrogens deficiency progesterone.
what are the three dominant patterns of morphologic change seen in fibrocystic condition
cyst formation, often with apocrine metaplasia, fibrosis and adenosis
a blue dome cysete of the breast is associated with
fibrocystic changes
fibrocystic changes do or do not elevate the risk of developing cancer
they do not, increased risk of developing cancer is assocaited with proliferative breast disease including epithelial hperplasia, sclerosing adenosis and small duct pap
atypical ductal hyperplasia
recognized by its histologic resemblance to ductal carcinoma in situ the cells are not completely monomorphic in type or fail to competely fill ductal spaces
atypical lobular hyperplasia
proliferation of a population of cells that resemble those of lobular carcinoma in situ but do not fill or distend more then 50% of lobule
the most common benign tumor of the breast
fibroadenoma
fibroadenoma of the breast
grows as a spherical nodule that sharlpy circumscribed and freely moveable from the surrounding breast substance
when fibroadenomas becomes signifcantly larger it is known as
giant fibroadenoma
what tumor is similar to fibroadenoma but often occures in 6th decade of life
Phyllodes tumor
papillomas of the breast are most frequently found in the
principal lactiferous ducts or sinuses
papillomas of the breat usually present with
unilateral serous of bloddy nipple discharge, small palpable masses, mammographic densities
etiology and incidence of breast carcinoma
1 in 9 women is US, 1/3 will succumb to the disease, it is rarely found before 25yrs
what are the classifications of carcinoma of the breast
noninvasive or in situ carcinoma and invasive carcinoma
carcinoma occurs mainly in which breast and what breast quadrants
Left breast and upper outer quandrant
name the 5 architectural subtypes of ductal carcinoma in situ
comedocarcinoma, solid, cribiform, papillary and micropapillary
list the clinical features of medullary carcinoma of the breast
occurs in younger than average women, accounts for 13% of cancers in women carrying BRCA 1 gene
which stains can be used to identify Paget Cells in Paget disease of the breast
Epithelial membrane antigen, c-erb-B2, low molecular weight keratins
inflammatory carcinoma of the breast is a special variant of
Invasive carcinoma of the breast
inflammatory carcinoma of the breast is clinically manifested by
acute swelling, redness and tenderness
what is the cause of peau d'orange appearance of the skin in carcinoma of the breast
lymphatics may become so invovled as to block the local area of skin drainage and cause lymphedema and thickening of the skin
the most common route for metastases of carcinoma of the breast is
Lymphohematgoenous route
what are the various agents used in conjunction with surgery to treat breast cancer
local and regional control using combos of postoperative irradiation, systemic control using hormone therapy or chemotherapy and or both
describe the significance of the presence of hormone receptors in breast cancers
50-80% of tumors exhibit estrogen receptors and such tumors are more commonly found in postmenopausal women
discuss varies malignancies of the breast
malignant neoplasia may arise from skin, sweat glands, sebaceous glands and hair shafts. the most common nonmammary metastases are from melanomas and lung cancer
describe the pathogensis of gynecomastia of the breast including some of the major clinical conditions where it occurs
gynoecomastia may occur as a result of imbalance between estrogens which stimulate breast tissue and androgens which counteract these effects