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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
most common congenital anomalies of the ureter
double and bifid ureters, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, diverticula
what are two types of chronic ureteritis
Ureteritis follicularis and uterteris cystica
the most common begnin tumor of the ureter are
Mesenchymal origin
the most common primary malignant tumor of the ureter is
Transitional cell carcinomA
Brunn Nest are
Nest of urothelium
Brunn Nest are result of
Inbudding of the surface epithelium
Congenital form of bladder diverticula
due to focal failure of development of the normal musculature or to some urinary tract obstruction during fetal development
Acquired diverticula of bladder
most often seen with prostatic enlargment producing obstruction of urine outflow and marked muscle thickening of the bladder wall
Bladder diverticula are of clinical significance because
they constitute sites of urinary stasis and predispose to infection and the formation of bladder calculi
exstrophy of the bladder
implies presence of a developmental failure in the anterior wall of the abdomen and the bladder
vesicouureteral reflux
most common serious annomaly and major contributor to renal infection and scarring
the most common etiologic agents of cystitis are
Coliform-Escherichia coli, Proteus, Klbesiella and enterobacter
three most common symptoms associated with cystitis are
frequency, lower abdominal pain localized over the bladder or suprpubic region dysuria
the most significant clinical consequence of cysitis
Bacterial pyelonephritis
Interstial cystitis
persistent painful form of chronic cystitis occuring most frequently in women with inflammation and fibrosis of all layers of bladder
peculiar pattern of vesical inflammatory reaction characterized by soft yellow slightly raised mucosal plaques
Cystitis glandularis
lesions of urinary bladder in which Brunn Nests grow downward into the lumina propria and undergo transformation of their central epithelial cells
the majority of neoplasms of the bladder are of what origin
epithelial cells
squamous cell carcinomas of bladder
represent about 3-7% of bladder cancers in US. are nearly always associated with chronic bladder irratation and infection
Adenocarcinomas of bladder
very rare and arise from urachal remnants or in association with extensive intestinal metaplasia
clincal symptoms associated with bladder tumors
produce painless hematuria, frequency urgency and dysuria occasionally accompany hematuria
adult form-occurs in those 40yrs or greater and shows a range of histology similar to rhabdomyosarcoma of straited muscle
embryonal rhadomyosarcoma
encountered chiefly in infancy or childhood and similar to those that occur in the female genital tract
the most common secondary tumors of the bladder are malignancies arising in
Cervix, uterus, prostate, rectum
8 most common causes of bladder outlet obstructions
prostate gland enlargment, congenital narrowing of urethera, inflammatory strictures of urethera, inflammatory fibrosis and constraction of the bladder, bladder tumors, secondary invasion, mechanical obstruction, injury to the innervation of bladder
the most common etiologic agent in primary urethritis is
E. coli
the clinical triad of arthritis, conjunctivitis, and urethritis is known as
Reiter syndrome
the most common malignancy of the urethera is
squamouc cell carcinoma
uretheral caruncle
inflammatory lesion presenting as a small red painful mass about the external urethral meatus in the female patient