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59 Cards in this Set

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two principle cell types of alveolar epithelium
Type I pneumocytes-flattened platelike pavement, covering 95% of the alveolar surface. Type II pneumocytes rounded, source pulmonary surfactnet main cell type involved in the repair of alveolar epithelium
what phospholipid decreases surface tension within the alveoli
surfactant
the most common hemodynamic of pulmonary edema is caused by
increased hydrostatic pressure
pulmonary edema most frequently occurs in
left sided congestive heart failure
describe pathogenic mechanism of adult respiratory distress syndrome
diffuse damage to the alveolar capillary walls caused by a variety of insults and probably initiated by different mechanisms
the classic pahtologic change seen in audlt respiratory distress syndrome ARDS
Hyaline membranes
describe various stages of ARDS
initial injury is to either capillary endothelium or alveolar epithelium. damage of these cells leads to increased permeability edema, fibrin exudate and formation of hayline membrane
the usual source of pulmonary emboli is
thrombi in the deep veins of the leg
a larger embolus that impacts in the main pulmonary artery or its branches is known as
saddle embolus
deaht as a result of saddle embolus is caused by
blockage of blood flow through the lungs or acute dilatation of the right side of the heart
atelectasis
incomplete expansion of the lungs or to the collapse of previously inflated lung substance producing areas of relatively airless pulmonary parenchyma
obstruction (resoprtion) actelectasis
consequence of complete obstruction of an airway leading to resoprtion of oxygen trapped in alveoli found in bronchial asthma chronic bronchitis
compression actelectasis
results whenever pleural cavity is partially or completely filled by fluid exudate tumor or blood or air found in tension pneumothorax
name five disorders that are in spectrum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disase COPD
chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, asthma, emphysema, small airway disease
emphysema
abnormal permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis
centriacinar emphysema
the central and proximal parts of the acini formed by respiratory bronchioles are affected whereas distal alveoli are spared
panacinar emphysema
acini are uniformly enlarged from the level of the respiratory bronchiole to the terminal blind alveoli
paraseptal emphysema
proximal portion of the acinus is normal but the distal part is dominantly invloved
irregular emphysema
the acnius is irregularly involved almost invariably associated with scarring
panacinar emphysema is frequently associated with a deficiency of what protein?
Alpha 1 antitripsin
subpleural dilated and confluent alveoli are known as
Blebs, bullae, bollus emphysema
interstital emphysema
entrance of air into the connective tissue of hte lung mediastinum or subcutaneous tissue
possible cause of interstitial emphysema
alveolar tears in pulmonary emphysema provide the avenue of entrance of air into the stroma of hte lung
four histological findings associated with asthma
thickening of basement membrane of bronchial epithelium, edema and inflammation of bronchial walls, increase size of submucosal glands, hypertrophy of bronchial wall muscle
bronchiectasis
chronic necrotizing infection of the bronchi and bronchioles leading to or associated with abnormal dilation of these airways
lobar pneumonia
acute bacterial infection of a large portion of lobe or an entire lobe the most common etiologic agent streptococcus pneumoniae
bronchopneumonia
lobular pneumonia
interstitial pneumonia is characterized by inflammatory changes primarily confined to the
alveolar and pulmonary interstitum
the most common organism which cause interstital pneumonitis is
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
name several mechanisms responsible for development of lung abcesses
aspiration of infective material, antecedent primary bacterial infection, septic embolism, neoplasia, trauma
primary pulmonary tuberculosis
lungs are usual location of primary infections initial focus of infections is the Ghon complex
Secondary pulmonary tuberculosis
represents reactivation of an old possibly subclinical infection usually located in one or both lung apices
progressive pulmonary tuberculosis
active lesions continue to progress over a period of monthsor years causing further pulmonary and even distant organ involvement
hypersensitivity pneumonitis
describes a spectrum of immunoligically mediated predominantly intersitial lung disorders caused by intense often prolonged exposure to inhaled organic dust
examples of hypersensitivity pneumonitis
farmers lung, pigeon breeders lung
characterisitc findings associated with Goodpasture syndrome
rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and necrotizing hemorrhagic interstial pneumonitis
in adults lipid pneumonias are most frequently caused by
conslidation of lung secondary to obstructive lesions
the four most common types bronchogenic carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcionma
name at least three etiologic agents associated with lung cancer
tobacco smoking, industrial hazards, air pollution
most scar cancers
are adenocarcinoma
lung cancers most frequentlu disseminate by which pathways
lymphatic and hematogenous
list four of the most common sites of metastasis of lung cancer
adrenals, liver, brain and bone
what are the two types of adenocarcinoma of the lung
Bronchial-derived adenocarcinoma and bronchiolalveolar carcinoma
the tumor most commonly associated with history of smoking is
squamous cell carcinoma
what tumors of the lung are thought to be derived from cells of the neuroedocrine system
tumorlets, carcinoid, and small cell carcinoma of the lung
paraneoplastic syndromes
symptom complexes in cancer patients that cannot be readily explained either by the local or distant spread of tumor by elevation of hormones indigenous to the tissue from the tumor arose
apical lung cancers that invade the cervical sympathetic plexus giving rise to Horner syndrome on the same side as the tumor known as
pancoast tumors
what four entities comprise Horner syndrome
enophthalmos, ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis
what type of carcinoma can frequently be misinterpreted as pneumonia due to its tendency to preserve the alveolar septa
bronchioloalveolar carcinoma
what tumors arise from the Kulchitsky cells of the bronchial mucosa
bronchial carcinoids
what are the three classic clinical signs associated with carcinoid syndrome
Intermitten attacks of diarrhea, flushing and cyanosis
a large noninflammatory collection of serous fluid within the pleural cavities is known as
hydrothorax
collections of blood within the pleural cavity are known as
hemothorax
chylothorax
accumulation of milky fluid usually of lymphatic orgin in pleural cavity
common cause of chyothorax
thoracic duct trauma or obstruction that secondarily causes rupture of major lymphatic ducts
presence of air or gas in the pleural cavities is known as
pneumothorax
list three types of pneumothorax
spontaneous, traumatic, therapeutic
at autopsy the best way to identify pneumothorax
careful opening of the thoracic cavity under water to detect the escape of gas or air bubbles
what pleural tumors is related to asbestos exposure
malignant mesothelioma