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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
prematurity is defined as
infants born before completion of the normal gestational period
what are the leading causes of death in the first twelve months of life?
congenital anomalies, disorders relating to short gestation and low birth weight SIDS
Grossly immature lungs or lungs from an infant are
unexpanded, red and meaty
What anatomic feature is present in immature kidneys
incomplete formation of glomeruli
transient physiologic jaudince in the neonate is the result of
breakdown of fetal red cells and inadequacy of biliary excretory function of liver cells
the five clinical signs used in Apgar scoring are
Heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, response to catheter in nostril, color
birth injuries most commonly involve what parts of the body
head, skeletal system, liver, adrenals, and peripheral nerves
Caput succedaneum
progressive accumulation of interstitial fluid in the soft tissues of the scalp giving rise to circular area of edema and congestion where the head begins to enter the lower uterine wall
hemorrhage occurring in the scalp
what is the most common important pathologic finding associated with birth head injuries?
intracranial hemorrhage
malformations known to be genetic in origin can be divided into what two groups?
those associated with karyotypic aberrations, those arising from single gene mutation
list four of the most common chromosomal syndromes in order of frequency
Trisomy 21, Klinefelter syndrome, turner syndrome, Trisomy 13
LIst three of the most common environmental influences that produce malformations in the fetus and infant
Viral infections, drugs, irradiation
the two most common viral infections of the newborn are
Rubella Virus, and cytomegalovirus
the major clinical triad seen in rubella syndrome is composed of
cataracts, heart defects, and deafness
the classic histologic finding associated with cytomegalic inclusion disease is
markedly enlarged cells with large purple intranuclear inclusions surrounded by a clear halo and smaller basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions
congential cytomegalic inclusion disease closely resembles what other childhood condition
erythroblastosis fetalis
respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn is also known as
hyaline membrane diseaes
the most common pathophysiologic defect in respiratory distress syndrome is
deficency of pulmonary surfactant
grossly lungs from a patient with respiratory distress syndrome are
solid, airless and reddish purple and usually sink in water
the disease seen as a result of prolonged oxygen toxicity in hyaline membrane disease is
bronchopulmonary displasia
erythroblastosis fetalis
hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by blood group incompatibility btwn mother and child
what pathological process occurs to allow the development of erythroblastosis fetalis
immunization of the mother by blood group antigens on fetal red cells and the free passage of antibodies from the mother through the placenta to fetus
what clincal treatment is used to prevent erythroblastosis fetalis
Rhesus immune globulin (RhIg) containing anti-D antibodies
what are the two consequences of excessive destruction of red blood cells in the neonate
Anemia and jaundice
the most serious problem in erythroblastosis fetalis is
damage to the nervous system and is known as Kernicterus
the most common histologic changes in erythroblastosis fetalis are
identification of abnormally increased erythropoietic activity increased number of reticulocytes, normoblast and erythroblasts in circulating blood
Cystic fibrosis
mucoviscidosis-is a widespread disorder of epithelial transport affecting fluid secretion in exocrine glands and the epithelial lining of the respiratory, GI and repo tracts
pathologic changes of pancreas in cystic fibrosis patients
mild accumulations of mucous in the small ducts with some dilation of exocrine glands in advanced stage ducts are totally plugged
pathologic changes of liver in cystic fibrosis patients
bile cnaliculi are plugged by mucinous material biliary cirrhosis may develop
pathologic changes in salivary glands of patients with cystic fibrosis
progressive dilation of ducts, squamous metaplasia of the lining epithelium and glandular atrophy followed by fibrosis
pathologic changes in lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis
viscous mucus secretions of submucosal glands of respiratory tree with secondary obstruction and infection of air passages
sudden infant death syndrome-the sudden death of an infant under 1yr which remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation
what is the clincal presentation of SIDS
infants die at home, usually during the night after a period of sleep 90% during 1st year of life
list most common features of family profile in patients with SIDS
young mother, unmarried, shot intergestational intervals low socioeconomic group smoking and drug abuse
Choristoma (heterotopia)
applied to microscopically normal cells or tissues that are present in abnormal locations
excessive but focal overgrowth of cells and tissues native to the organ in which it occurs
the most common tumor of infancy is
name 8 of the most common malignant neoplasms seen in children under 5 yrs
Leukemia, Retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, soft tissue sarcoma, teratoma, CNS tumors
what is the most common tumor diagnosed in infants less than one year of age
list 3 clinical syndromes associated with an increased incidence of the Wilms tumor
WAGR syndrome, Denys-Drash syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
the development of vaginal adenosis and vaginal adenocarcinoma is associated with
maternal Diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure
the most common form of lymphoma in African Children is
Burkitts lymphoma
Burkitts lymphoma is suspected to be caused by which virus
Epstein Barr Virus