Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Histamine is stored in and released from what three cells?
basophils, mast cells, and platlets
What three things happen when histamine is released?
dilation of pre-capillary sphincters

vascular endothelium rounds-up allowing fluid to escape

causes endothelium to express adhesion molecules
What substance is the ultimate mediator of vascular tone?
What produces the sustained rubor,calor, and dolor associated with inflammation?
What enyzme initiates the LT cascade and when is it activated?
Lipooxygenase is activated when cytosolic Ca levels are elevated
What three mediators simulate acute phase protien synthesis in the liver?
IL-1, IL-6, TNF
IFN is tightly regulated and only produced by what two cells?
T cells and NK cells
What are the most improtant stimulators of IFN?
Besides viruses, what are three other stimulators of IFN?


and TNF
describe inflammation of an acute duration
many hours or a few days
prominent vascular response
fibrin present
neutrophils are the most prominent cell
tissues tend to be red and juicy ooze blood and serum
describe inflammation of a subacute nature
at least a few days maybe a week
more solid, less juicy exudate
contains more macrophages,lymphocytes and plasma cells
less juicy,less redened will ooze thicker more opaque exudate
descibe inflammation of a chronic nature
weeks months or years
fibrosis and scarring neovascularization
tissue will be whiter, firmer possibly no exudate at all
What are the terms used to describe inflammation distribution?
locally extensive
Where will serous exudates most commonly occur?
upper respiratory tract
serous membranes lining the plural, peritoneal and pericardial cavities
What does a fibrinous exudate indicate about the extent of damage?
There has been enough damage to endothelium and basement membrane to allow large scale leakage of clotting factors into tissue
What are three examples where fibrinous exudates are frequently seen?
traumatic reticuloperitonitis

early stages of bovine shipping fever

wet form of FIP
What exudate gives a characteristic greenish tint to the tissue?
In a DTH granuloma, what mediators are produced in high amounts?
IL-1, IL-12, TNF
What organisms often cause pyogranulamatous reactions?
Coccidioides Nocardia and some fungi

Dry form of FIP
what are the three most talked about granules in neutrophils?
specific granules

tertiary granules
What do azurophil granules contain?
degradative enzymes
cytochrome b
What do specific granules contain?
most of the stromal degradative enzymes MMP's
adhesion molecules
What two mediators are very good at stimulating irreversible pavementing of neutrophils?
IL-1 and TNF
What is the lactoferrin in specific granules used for?
It is a source of Iron for the generation of hydroxyl radical
What does the myeloperoxidase in azurophilic granules do?
It converts chloride ions into powerful oxidizing agents
What is the major mediator in eosinophil activation?
What do IL-2 and IL-15 do?
stimulate helper t-cells and b-cell proliferation

enhances activity of cytotoxic T-cells and NK cells
What produces IL-3?
activated T-cells
what is the main job of IL-3?
it is a potent hematopoietin that stimulates stem cells of all cell lines
what is the most important IL in stimulating hepatocytes to generate acute phase proteins?
What happens to bone marrow with the presence of persistent IL-6?
Bone marrow shifts from producing neutrophils to producing macrophages
What substance enhances the response of hepatocytes to IL-6?
What is IL-8's most important role?
It is the most potent stimulator of neutrophil migration into the site of inflammation
What cells produce IL-8?
macrophages,fibroblasts, and endothelium
What is the major inhibitory IL in inflammation?
What IL is essential for elimination of agents that are taken care of by cell-mediated responses?
what are three favorable effects of fever?
speeds up biochemical reactions
enhances responsiveness of immune and inflammatory reactions

increased temp is unfavorable for infectious agent growth
What role does PGE have in fever?
It has an affect on the hypothalamus which causes peripheral vasoconstriction
PGE has an effect on circulating WBC's similar to that of adrenal corticosteroids which is what?
they induce release of neutrophils into the circulation from the bone marrow and peripheral pools
What two compliment fragments can mediate the release of histamine from mast cells?
C3a and c5a
What acute phase protein is important in stimulating Kupfer cells?
What cells produce TNF beta?
How do IFN alpha and beta work against viruses?
They inhibit protien synthesis in adjacent cells
How does IFN gamma relate to macrophages?
It stimulates NO synthetase so the macrophage can produce NO and induces the synthesis of enzymes that are antiprotozoaal in nature