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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
where may the effects of an arterial thrombosis occur?
immediate service area or distant tissues
what is the effect of an arterial thrombosis in the immediate service area?
no problem if collateral circulation is intact, but infarction if collateral circulation is inadequate
what is the effect of an arterial thrombosis in the distant tissues?
embolism; detached intravascular undissolved material carried to distant site
how do arterial thrombosis affect distant tissues?
plug vasculature at the next narrow place which can lead to infarction in either the venous (lungs) or arterial (systemic circulation)
what is the name for an aortic bifurcation thrombus?
saddle thrombus
what is a saddle thrombus?
an aortic bifurcation embolism
what is a thromboemboli?
an emboli that includes thrombi (more common) and contain worms, fragments, bacterial clumps, air, fat, tumor thrombosis (metastasis), bone or fibrocartilage, or foreign body
what are the consequences of thromboemboli?
metastasis, infarction, acute circulatory failure, abscess from septic embolus, arterial aneurysm
what occurs with metastasis due to thromboemboli?
dissemination of infection/neoplasm
what occurs with infaction due to thromboemboli?
inadequate collateral or compromised collateral supply compromised
what occurs with acute circulatory failure due to thromboemboli?
thromboemboli impact R heart or pulmonary trunk
what occurs with abscess from septic embolus due to thromboemboli?
infarction, inflammation, liquefaction
what occurs with arterial aneurysm due to thromboemboli?
dilation, arterial wall weakened by thrombosis, arteritis
what is the most common example of an arterial aneurysm?
verminous arteritis of the cranial mesenteric artery in the horse due to migrating larvae of Strongylus vulgaris
what occurs when an aneurysm ruptures?
usually leads to rapid fatal hemorrhage
what can be used to categorize the fate of thrombi?
small, medium, large
what is the fate of small thrombi?
dissolved by fibronolysis via plasminogen activator-plasmin system
what is the fate of medium thrombi?
organized and incorporated into vessel wall; the marginal endothelium grows over thrombotic mass creating endothelial continuity or new capillary formation into incorporated portion
what is the fate of large thrombi?
organized and recanalized when fibrovascular tissue and MP's invade thrombus; shrinkage from contraction of myofibroblasts result in recanalization (flow) and some incorporation into wall, some recanalization of center of thrombus
what eventually occurs with thrombus?
recedes into vessel wall (scars) otherwise it clots causing emboli
where can embolization occur?
arterial or venous
define infarct
a localized area of ischemic necrosis in an organ or tissue resulting from the occulusion of either its arterial supply or venous drainage
what are the causes of an infarct?
thrombosis/thromboemboli, arterial spasm, external occulsion of vessel, narrowing of arterial lumen
what is the most common cause of an infarct?
thrombosis/thromboemboli
what causese narrowing of arterial lumen in infarcts?
lesion on walls (arteriosclerosis)
what causese arterial spasm in infarcts?
poisoning by ergot
what causese external occlusions of vessels?
ligation, external pressure, strangulation due to volvulus
what vessels tend to infarct due to external occlusions?
veins
how are infarcts classified?
color, presence/absence of contamination bacteria, morphology
describe white infarcts?
arterial occulsions in solid tissues/organs with little/no collateral circulation (heart, kidney) which have single vascular supply circuit, generally older infarcts
describe red infarcts?
following venous occulsion; in loose tissue where seepage from peripheral hemorrhage is possible; dual vascular supply (lungs, small intestine), younger infarcts
describe septic infarcts?
contaminated with bacteria; coagulation to liquefaction to abscess
what is the general gross morphology of infarcts?
wedge shaped on cut surface with apex of wedge points toward focus of occlusion
what is the gross morphology of white infarcts?
yellow-white, sharply demarcated afte a few days
what occurs over time with infarcts?
margins becme better defined; peripheral hyperemia resulting in inflammation
what is the histology of infarcts?
coagulation necrosis, marked hemorrhage in red infarcts; necrotic focus replaced by scar tissue but may have some regeneration at periphery