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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
epididymitis
inflammation of epididymis causing scrotal pain
population at risk for epididymitis
young sexually active men
urethral inflammation presenting with discharge and painful urination which is an STD in older men
urethritis
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
previous family hx in men over 5
second most common cause of cancer in men
prostate cancer
most common bacterially caused STD in US
chlamydia
how does chlamydia present in men and women
cervicitis and urethritis
painful urination and discharge
ocular signs of chlamydia
inferior palpebral conjunctiva follicle

chronic red eye
tx for chlamydia
azithromycin
doxycycline
oxyfloxin
std that causes hyperacute muccupureulent discharge
gonorrhea
symptoms of gonnorrhea
asymptomatic or can have vagnal discharge urethritis, burn when pee
gonorrhea tx
1 dose ceftriaxone 125mg IM and doxycylcine 100 mg po BID x 7d
why is doxycycline given to tx gonorrhea
bc most of time chlamydia is w the gonorrhea
Thayer Martin agar
gonorrhea
wright gram stain
herpes simplex
mucosal lesion on lips
HSV 1
mucosal lesion on mucosa of sex organs
HSV 2
prodrome of HSV
itching
tingling
irritation
HSV tx
acyclovir
famcylovir
infection of cervix either due to vaginal infxn or STD can be asymptomatic or cause yellow discharge and/or postcoital bleeding
cervicitis
common but treatable form of cancer in one due to HPV
cervical cancer
diffuse breast pain and multiple dense lesions that do not increase risk of breast cancer
fibrocystic breast dz
small mobile firm mass with sharp edges affecting women under age 25
fibroadenoma
where do breast tumors metastize to the most
retina
malignant carcinoma of breast
infiltrating ductile
malignant lymphatic involving breast cancer with poor prognosis
inflammatory
malignant red patches on nipple
paget's dz
malignant multiple and bilateral clusters of cells in intraductal lobules in breast
infiltarting lobular cancer
malignany cellular carcinoma with scant stromal and lymphocytic infiltrates
medullary
protein malnutrition causing skin lesions, anemia, edema, and liver malfxn

SMALL child with SWOLLEN BELLY
kwashiorkor
protein calorie malnutrition causing tissue wasting

pt has wt loss and tissue loss
marasmus
what do alcoholics have
increased liver enzymes and GGT
decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase and vitamin B
what are alcoholics prone to
gallstones
hepatitis
cirrohsis
psychosis, ophthalmoplegia, atatxia, memory loss, confusion, and vitamin B deficiency seen in alcoholics
wernicke-korsakoff syndrome
alcoholism tx
disulfaraum
benzodiazepines
life threatening alcohol withdrawl 2-5 days after last drink
deilirium tremens
what fails to close in spina bifida
posterior vertebral arches
what is intact in spina bifida
meninges
spinal cord
what can be seen in site of defect in spina bifida pts
small skin dimple or hair
asymptomatic spina bifida
spina biffida oculta
what symptoms seen in severe spina biffida
lower body dysfxn of bowel, bladder, legs

decreased learning ability

enlrg ventricles
most severe neural tube defect resulting in death because brain and cranial bones are absent
anencephaly
muscular hypertrophy of pyloric muscle in babies reulting in porjectile vomitting
pyloric stenosis
teratology of fallout
right to left shunt causing blue babies

pulmonary stenosis

cyanosis

boot shaped heart
left to right shunt
more common
blue kids

VSD, ASD, PDA
mental slowness or retardation along with impaired vol muscle fxn, seizures, speech, sensory defects and hyperactiveness
cerebral palsy
type 1 diabetes melitus incidence and onset
not common

juvenile
type 1 DM due to
severe B cell depletion cant make insuln
type 1 DM tx
need insulin
triad of type 1 DM
polyuria
polydipsea
weight loss
do type 1 DM get ketoacidosis
yes
are type 1 DM intolerant to glucose
yes
type 1 DM shows what in blood
high glucose levels
Hb A1C
insulin does what
puts glucose into cells
DM is characterized by
poor insulin response
glucose underutilizatio
hyperglycemia
why do type 1 DM get ketoacidossi
increase insulin demand
type 2 DM incidence and onset
most common

adulthood
triad of type 2 DM
polyuria
polydipsea
wt gain
type 2 DM are obese
TRUE
type 2 DM shows a genetic predisposition
TRUE
protein calorie malnutrition causing tissue wasting

pt has wt loss and tissue loss
marasmus
what do alcoholics have
increased liver enzymes and GGT
decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase and vitamin B
what are alcoholics prone to
gallstones
hepatitis
cirrohsis
psychosis, ophthalmoplegia, atatxia, memory loss, confusion, and vitamin B deficiency seen in alcoholics
wernicke-korsakoff syndrome
alcoholism tx
disulfaraum
benzodiazepines
life threatening alcohol withdrawl 2-5 days after last drink
deilirium tremens
what fails to close in spina bifida
posterior vertebral arches
what is intact in spina bifida
meninges
spinal cord
what can be seen in site of defect in spina bifida pts
small skin dimple or hair
asymptomatic spina bifida
spina biffida oculta
what symptoms seen in severe spina biffida
lower body dysfxn of bowel, bladder, legs

decreased learning ability

enlrg ventricles
most severe neural tube defect resulting in death because brain and cranial bones are absent
anencephaly
muscular hypertrophy of pyloric muscle in babies reulting in porjectile vomitting
pyloric stenosis
teratology of fallout
right to left shunt causing blue babies

pulmonary stenosis

cyanosis

boot shaped heart
left to right shunt
more common
blue kids

VSD, ASD, PDA
mental slowness/retardation, imparied vol muscle fxn, seizure, speech and sensory defects
cerebral palsy
what characterizes DM
poor insulin response
glucose underutilization
hyperglycemia
incidence of type 1 dm
not common 20%
onset of type 1 dm
young ppl
cause of type 1 dm
lack of insulin production due to defecient beta cells
what is seen in blood work of DM
high glucose
Hb A1C
what is one complication DM 1
ketoacidosis
tx of type 1
insulin
what 3 things are seen in type 1
polyuria
polydyspia
wt loss
type 2 onset
adults
type 2 cause
peripheral insulin resistance make insulin but are resistant to it
type 2 incidence
most common 80%
what is associated with type 2
obesity and genetics
tx of type 2
exercise
diet
glycemics
insulin PRN
what 3 things seen in type 2
polyueia
polydypsia
wt gain
extreme thirst, frequent urination caused by ADH deficiency
diabetes insipidus
symptoms of hypothyroidism
slow BMR
fat
lazy
lethargic
decreased appetite
constipation
weak
hairy
cold intolerantt
lab work of hypothyroidism
decrease T3 & T4
increased TSH
most common cause of hypothyroidism
primary hypothyroidism
secondary hypothyroidism
TSH deficiency due to hypopituitarism
autoimmune mediated destruction of thyroid gland seen in regions of iron defieciency
hashimotos thyroiditis
hyperthyroidsim symptoms
increased BMR
skinny
increased appetite
anxious
palpitations
warm skin
heat intolerant
autoimmune hyperthryoidism due to TSH Ab causing proptosis, EOM infiltration
Grave's dz
lab work of hyperthyroidism
high T3 & T4
decreased TSH
hyperparathryoidism causes
hypercalcemia

PTH puts Ca in blood
hyperPTH symptoms
Bones, stones, abdominal groans, psychotic moans, fatigue overtones
hypoPTH due to
thyroidectomy
hypoPTH causes
tetany, muscle cramps, PSC, long QT and T waves
hypoPTH does what to Ca
hypolcalcemia
over production of anterior pituitart due to pituitary adenoma or hypothalamic disorders
hyperpituitarism
under secretion of pituitary hormones due to pituitary adenomas, granulomas, aneurysms, brain tumors
hypopituitarism
autoimmune atrophy of adrenals
addison's dz
what happens is addison's dz
not enough cortisol so weak, tired, anorexia, wt loss, diarrea, hypotension
excessive corticosteroid production either due to ACTH deficiency or excessive secretion of cortisol in adrenals
cushing's
describe cushing's patient
central obesity
moon face
buffalo hump
very rare tumor of adrenal glands or anywhere in sympathetic nervous chain
pheochromcytomas
5 P's of pf pheocromocytoma
high Pressure
Pain (HA)
Perspiraton
Pallor
Anxiety - sense of doom