Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Pathology- the study of diseases

Pathogenesis- How a disease develops
The causes of diseases
Signs vs. Symptoms
Signs- things you can see
Symptoms- things the patient complains of
Diagnosis vs. Prognosis
Diagnosis- naming the disease

Prognosis- the forcasted outcome
clinical or gross vs. hisopathology
clinical- what you're looking at

histopathology- what you see under a microscope
3 Divisions of Pathology
Anotomical Pathology- autopsy
Surgical Pathology- using a surgical speciman to find a diagnosis

Clinical Pathology- the biochemistry of drugs.
11 Types of Diseases
Familial or inheritted- genetic

COngenital- During development

Nutritional- Lacking vitamins or nutrients

Neoplastic-tumors (Benign is non cancerous, malignant is)

Autoimmune- an over functioning or non functioning of the immune system

Idiopathic- cause isn't known

Iatrogenic- caused inadvertantly by a health profesional

Factitious- self inflicted

Phychosomatic- caused by psycological states.

Inflamation, Infestation, and Infection

Trauma- physical and chemical
Dystrophic vs. metastatic calcification
Dystrophic occurs on dead, dying, or injured cells. Serum calcium is fine. It is deadly in the aorta, but not in the musculoskeleton

Metastatic calcification- occurs in healthy cells, elevated serum calcium
All things that can happen to a cell that is injured
metaplasia- reversible change in the cell type

dysplasia- irreversible cell type step in cancer

hyperplasia- increasing the number of cells

atrophy- happens when blood flow is cut off, smaller cell

hypertrophy- cell gets bigger

pynkosis- happens when the cell dies, an atrophy of the nucleaus

cloudy swelling- happens when there is too much water in the cytoplasm.

fatty changes- happens when you drink
Necrosis vs. Apoptosis
Necrosis occurs when a dead cell is surrounded by living cells. It is an irritant and causes inflamation

Apoptosis is the planned death of a cell. The cell breaks up into membrane bound bodies that are eaten by phagocytosis
6 types of necrosis
Liquifactive Necrosis- formation of puss filled abscesses. Usually occurs when blood is cut of to the brain. Cells atrophy and liquify

Coagulative- occurs when blood is cut off to the cardiac

Caseous- a white, cottage cheese like substance forms...TB

Ischemic- when blood flow is cut off and leads to necrosis

Gangrene- bacterial infection of the necrosis

Fat Necrosis- maily in pancreus.....fat turns into a white, soapy substance.
What did Virchow do?
Perfected the autopsy technique and took pathology to a microscopic level.
What did virchow do?
took pathology to a microscopic level and perfected the autopsy technique
What is the terrible triad?
Thrombosis, embolism, infarction
a blood clot that has attached to a blood vessel
Main causes of thrombosis
endothilial injury- blood meets connective tissue

abnormal blood flow- either stasis or turbulence

hypercoagulation due to cancer or medication
features and types of thrombosis
lines of zahn- show blood is circulating- layers of RBC, WBC, and platlets

- in both arteries and veins (just veins called phlebothrombosis)

-occlusive thrombosis- blocks the blood vessel

mural thrombosis- occur on the cardiac wall

Propagating thrombosis- grow a tail, ususally in the veins
Fates of thrombosis
Total resolutiono- body breaks down

Become scars after shrinking and turning into granulation

Recanalization- punching holes in the thrombosis so blood can run through

propagation- growing

embolism- braking off and traveling through the blood stream.
a detached solid, liquid or gas that travels away from it's source in the blood
What can an embolism be combosed of?
Thrombosis (most common)
Air- happens during surgery or decompression
Fat- happens during a bone fracture
Septic- fungi, bacteria, etc..
Foreign objects
Tumors- metastatic tumors
Ichemic necrosis- a cell dies after blood flow has been cut off - 99 percent arterial in nature.
why do venous thrombi travel further than arterial?
Arteries narrow more quickly, thus becoming blocked sooner
Nature of blood supply's effects on infarction
Some, such as the liver, kidney, heart, and lung are dualy supplied....thus lowering the risk of infarction
vulneraibility to infarction
Neurns- last 3,4 minutes w/o blood

myocardium- last 20 to 30 minutes

Organs that undergo infarction
Kidney, lung, brain, heart
oxygen content of the blood and its effect on infarction
If oxygen content is too low (due to Carbon Monoxide poisoning, other things), infarction could occur.