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161 Cards in this Set

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Major processes of inflammation
1) increased blood flow
2) increased vascular permeability
3) leukocyte exudation (NOT neutrophil!!)
Imflammation
The process of reaction of VASCULARIZED living tissue to injury (tissue must be alive, NEVER post-mortem)
Leukocytic Events (*in order!!)
1) Margination
2) Rolling
3) Adhesion
4) Transmigration
5) Chemotaxis and activation
Repair
process by which lost or necrotic cells are replaced by vital cells; either regeneration, scaring/fibrosis, or both
Regeneration
replacement by cells of the SAME type
Resolution
elimination of the inflammatory stimulus, and senescense and removal of inflammatory cells after active inflammation
Scarring/fibrosis
replacement by connective tissue
Exudate
protein rich fluid, inflammatory cells, cellular products, and cell debris accumulating at the site of an inflammatory reaction
4 primary signs of ACUTE inflammation [from Celsus]
1) rubor (redness)
2) tumor (swelling)
3) calor (heat)
4) dolor (pain)
5th sign of acute inflammation [from Virchow]
functio laesa (loss of function)
chemotaxis
cell migration along a concentration gradient of inflammatory mediator
chemokinesis
RANDOM migration stimulated by a chemical mediator
morphologic diagnosis
diagnosis based purely on morphology; involves description of duration (chronic, acute, etc), distribution (multifocal, diffuse, generalized, etc), type of exudate (granulomatous, supperative [pus], hemorrhagic, etc), and tissue involved (enteritis, hepatitis, pleuritis, etc)
acute
usually only hours to a few days duration
peracute
manifested in full force after only a few hours duration
subacute
several days to a week duration
chronic
persistence of inflammatory stiumlus for periods beyond 10-14 days; characterized in most cases by FIBROSIS
fibrosis (adj.= fibrous)
accumulation of synthesized collagen in tissue (different from fibrINous!!!); chronic; product of repair process; replaces fibrin
fibrinous inflammation
accumulation of fibrin-dominated exudate; associated with an increase in vascular permeability; acute
What are pain receptors stimulated by?
bradykinin and prostaglandins
suppurative
purulent, dominated by NEUTROPHILS
erosion
defect in epithelium to the level of the basement membrane
ulcer
epithelial defects to levels BELOW the basement membrane
chronic inflammation
inflammation resulting from injurious stimuli that are persistent, often for weeks or months, leading to a prodominantly proliferative (rather than exudative) reaction
granulomatous inflammation
CHRONIC inflammatory response dominated by MACROPHAGES (different from granulation tissue!!!!); may have multinucleated giant cells (Langhans cells = fused macrophages)
granuloma
compact and organized collection of mononuclear inflammatory cells (macrophages,lymphocytes, and plasma cells) dominated by macrophages (NO neutrophils!); lamost always associated with chronic inflammatory reactions
simple granuloma
organized and compact aggregate of macrophages and/or epithelial cells with other inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes and plasma cells; NO necrosis or calcification; seen in Johne's Disease
complex granuloma
granuloma with central necrosis and possibly calcification; seen in TB
Histamine
causes vasodilation and increased vascular permeability; comes from mast cells and basophils
fibrosis
prosess resulting in an increase of collagen in tissue
granulation tissue
highly organized fibrovascular tissue that often replaces necrotic debris and areas where poor regeneration occurs; made up of fibroblasts and blood vessels growing perpendicular to each other; too much granulation tissue (often on legs of horses) is called proud flesh
labile cells
cells that continue to multiply throuhgout life and replenish those lost due to normal turnover
stable cells
cells with latent capacity to regenerate
Permanent cells
cells with no capacity to regenerate additional cells (neurons, cardiac myocytes)
Epidermal growth factor
potent growth factor produced by macrophages, stromal fibroblasts, and to a lesser extent epithelial cells in some tissues; potent inducer of epithelial proliferation and repair (think: helps with wound healing!)
None
Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)
growth factor produced by macrophages, paltelets, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells; stimulates smooth muscle proliferation and fibrosis (think: helps endothelial cells of blood vessels grow to heal a wounded blood vessel)
None
Basic fibroblast growth factor
produced by macrophages and other cells; potent inducer of endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis (think: healing damaged blood vessels)
None
Transforming growth factor beta
produced by macrophages and other cells, including smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, platelets, and some epithelial cells; promotor of fibrosis and inhibitor of epithelial regeneration
Vascular endothelial growth factor
highly potent angiogenesis factor produced by macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells in tissue; also produced by many malignant tumors and assists in neoplasm angiogenesis
None
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)
produced in macrphages, monocytes, and fibroblasts, with a wide range of biological properties; involved in an inflammatory response
None
Healing by 1st intention
there is little exudate, and tissue elements are clocely approximated; the kind of wound you would suture (pulls together without a gap in the tissues)
Healing by 2nd intention
the edges of the wound are widely seperated; fills in by granulation tissue and leaves a scar.
None
Organization
replacement of fibrin and necrotic debris by granulation tissue
Pseudomembrane
tough sheet of fibrin
Croupous
detachable fibrinous exudate
Diphtheritic
in contrast to croupous, the fibrous exudate is firmly attached to the underlying surface and cannot be removed without tearing off a superficial layer of bleeding surface.
None
Fibrinous cast
retains the shape of the structure in which it was moulded.
Abscess
pus in a confined area.
Phlegmon (cellulitis)
pus spread thinly throughout or diffusely without being walled off (subcutaneously and along facial plane); cellulitis is NOT inflammation of cells!!!!!
Empyema
accumulation of pus in a body cavity
Cold abscess/ chronic abscess
abscess consisting of inspissated pus surrounded by a thick fibrous capsule.
Inspissated
made or having become thickened in consistency; usually in reference to pus.
Hemorrhagic inflammation
characterized by numerous RBC's exuding from the body surface.
Lymphocytic inflammation
characterized by accumulation of lymphocytes.
Neoplasm
abnormal mass of tissue in which the growth exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of normal tissues, and which persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli which evoked the change.
Oncology
the study of neoplasia
Epithelial (tumor)
lining epithelium, glands; malignant epithelial tumors are carcinomas
Mesenchymal (tumor)
connective tissue, bones, lymphatics, vascular system; malignant mesenchymal tumors are sarcomas
Oncology
Greek for tumor, swelling, or mass
Oncogenic
causing a cancer
Tumor
literally a mass or swelling; specifically a neoplasm (different usage from the word in the 5 cardinal signs of acute inflammation)
Benign
not malignant; favorable; good-natured; often well encapsulated by a rim of fibrous tissue and thus can be removed fairly easily
None
Malignant
having the property of uncontrollable growth and dissemination or recurrence (often recurs when removed, does not obay the rules of growth as "normal" cels do, and metastasizes)
Cancer
any malignant neoplasm
Carcinogenesis
sequence of events leading to the development of cancer
None
Metastasis
presence of a disease process at a site distant from the site of origin (adj. metastatic); it is the definitive characteristic of malignancy-NO benign tumors metastasize, though most (not all!) malignant tumors will metastasize.
Mass
a large lump
Nodule
a small lump
Cyst
any closed EPITHELIAL LINED CAVITY usually containing fluid or pasty material; if it is lined by connective tissue, NOT epithelial tissue, it is a pseudocyst.
None
Polyp
a growth or mass protruding from a mucus membrane, usually on a stalk ("mushroom-like")
Papilla
a nipple-like or frond-like projection ("finger-like")
Sessile
sitting on a surface, WITHOUT a stalk
Leukemoid response
very high WBC count
Hamarotma
a malformation composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that are normally present in the affected part, but often with one element predominating; congenital lesions such as a mole or a birth mark.
Choristoma
microscopically normal cells or tissues present in an abnormal location, which may be visible macroscopically as a mass; almost always congenital; also known as "embryonic rest"; picture hair growing out of the beagle's eye from class
None
Teratoma
a neoplasm composed of neoplastic elements from more than one, and often all three, germ layers.
"-oma"
benign neoplasm
Adenoma
benign EPITHELIAL neoplasm
Papilloma
Benign epithelial tumor on an epithelial surface with wart-like or finger-like projections
Polyp
benign tumor projecting from a mucosal surface
Cystadenoma
adenoma with a central cystic area
Lipoma
benign neoplasm of fat
Fibroma
benign neoplasm of connective tissue
Lymphoma
a malignant lymphoid neoplasm
Melanoma
a malignancy of melanocytes; may or may not be darkly pigmented.
Hepatoma
malignancy of hepatocytes
Myeloma
malignancy of plasma cells
Carcinoma
a malignant epithelial neoplasm; abbreviated CA
Sarcoma
a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm (mesenchyme is muscle, connective tissue, blood, and lymph)
None
Fibrosarcoma
malignant neoplasm of fibrous tissue
Carsinoma-in-situ
refers to a cancer within an epithelial surface that has not penetrated the basment membrane (dysplasia often leads to carcinoma in situ)
Metastasis
spread of distant sites
Multicentricity
when no main primary tumor is found; occurs when a neoplasm has undergone metastasis or many tumors arose at one time
None
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
fetal/oncofetal antigen in liver cancer
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
fetal/oncofetal antigen in GI cancer
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
fetal/oncofetal antigen in prostate cancer
Congenital
present at birth (NOT synonymus with hereditary)
Teratology
division of embryology and pathology dealing with abnormal dvelopment and congenital defects
"-melia"
having to do with limbs
"-cephalic"
having to so with the head (dicephalic = 2 heads)
"-prosopus"
faces (so diprosopus = 2 faces)
"-schisis"
cleft
arthrogryposis
fixed joints, often congenital and not hereditary
Langerhan Cells
antigen presenting cells of the skin; mediate immunologic reactions
Merkel Cells
part of dispersed neuroendocrine system; cells of basal layer which act as mechanoreceptors and help regulate epidermal and adnexal function (tactile sensation in lower animals)
Adnexae
the specialized accessory structures of the skin; hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, mammary glands, anal sacs, claws, hooves, etc. are all adnexae
Hyperkeratosis
increased thickness of stratum corneum
Orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis
NORMAL loss of nuclei in keratinized cells
Parakeratotic hyperkeratosis
nuclei RETAINED in keratinized cells
Dyskeratosis
premature or abnormal keratinization of stratum spinosum
Acanthosis
increased number of cells in stratum spinosum
Psoriasiform hyperplasia
regular downward projections of edidermis
Hypoplasia
decreased number of cells
Atrophy
decreased size of cells; grossly it is impossible to differentiate between hypoplasia and atrophy
Acantholysis
loss of cohesion between keratinocytes due to antibodies against desmosomes
Vesicles/bullae
fluid-filled cavities (vessicles < 5mm, bullae > 5mm)
Teratogenesis
step by step of what caused the defects
Aplasia or agenesis
arrest of development of organ or structure-the organ or structure is absent
Hypoplasia
small organ or structure following an arrest of development
Atresia ani
absence of anal opening where overlying skin remains (atresia = congenital absence or closure of normal body opening or tubular structure)
Aprosopus
no face
Diprosopus
2 faces
Dicephalic
2 heads (will have 2 necks-2 complete heads)
Agnathia
congenital absence of the lower jaw
Brachygnathia
short lower jaw
Anophthalmia
no eyes
Synophthalmia
cyclops; 1 eye
Synotia
fusion of ears
Anotia
no ears
Cerebellar hypoplasia
failure of development of granular cells of cerebellum; may be inherited or due to viral disease (feline panleukopenia, BVD)
Torticollis/ wryneck
torsion of the neck; may be congenital or acquired
Lordosis
swayback
Kyphosis
hump-back
Scoliosis
"S" curve (lateral) in spine
Kyphoscoliosis
both upward and lateral curve of the spine
Spina bifida
defective closure of vertebral arch; spinal cord and meninges may of may not protrude through the opening
Palatoschisis
cleft palate
Cheiloschisis
cleft lip, "harelip"
Perosomus elumbis
vertebral column stops at caudal thoracic area, and the posterior part of the body is joined to the front half by soft tissue only
Amelia
no legs
Abreachia
absence of forelimbs
Monobrachia
absence of one forelimb
Apodia
absence of feet
Monopodia
agenesis of one limb
Peromelia
deformity of limb(s)
Phocomelia
proximal part of limb is abscent, distal part is present (like seal flippers)
Micromelia
abnormally small extremity (ies)
Polymelia
supernumerary (more than the normal number of) limbs
Notomelia
extra limb; "parasitic limb"
Polydactyly
supernumerary (more than the normal number of) digits
Syndactyly
fused digits
Anury
absence of the tail
Brachyury
short tail
Polyury
more than one tail
Monorchidism
only one testis in scrotum
Polyochordism
multiple testes
Cryptorchid
animal with undescended testes
Anorchid
uncastrated male without testis
Thelia
teats
polythelia
extra teats
synthelia
fused teats