Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is hypoxia?
A partial reduction in O2 concentration supplied to cells or tissue
What is anoxia?
A complete reduction in the O2 concentration supplied to cells or tissue
Oxygen is critically important for what process in cells?
Oxidative phosphorylation
What is kwashiorkor?
A nutritional deficiency illness in children who are not getting enough protein
What is dermatosparaxis?
Recessive disorder of cattle, in which a procollagen peptidase is absent
What is hydropic degeneration?
Cell swelling
What is the most common and fundamental expression of cell injury?
Hydropic degeneration
What are the best studied laboratory models of cell swelling?
1. Hypoxia induced failure of ATP synthesis
2. Carbon tetrachloride induced membrane damage
What is probably the most important fundamental cause of acute cell swelling?
What is ischemia?
Reduced blood flow to a region of the body
What type of degeneration is typically seen in epidermal cells infected by epitheliotropic viruses?
Ballooning degeneration
Which cell types are highly vulnerable to hypoxia and cell swelling?
Cardiac myocytes
Proximal renal tubular epithelium
What is cell death following irreversible cell injury by hypoxia, ischemia, and membrane injury?
Irreversible injury to what appears to be the death blow to the cell?
Mitochondrial membrane
What is a molecule that has an unpaired electron?
Free radical
What is a general gross description of necrotic tissue?
Pale, soft and friable, and sharply demarcated from viable tissue by a zone of inflammation
What is often a reliable means to distinguish necrosis from autolysis?
A sharp line of demarcation
What is coagulation necrosis characterized by?
Preservation of the basic cell outlines of necrotic cells
In what tissues is coagulation necrosis classically seen?
Kidney, liver, muscle
What term implies conversion of dead cells into a granular friable mass grossly resembling cottage cheese?
Caseation necrosis
What is the classic cause of caseation necrosis?
What is the usual type of necrosis in the CNS?
Liquefactive necrosis
What leads to a focal liquid collection of necrotic neutrophils and tissue debris?
What are the three types of gangrene?
Dry gangrene
Moist gangrene
Gas gangrene
What is the term for coagulation necrosis secondary to infarction, which is followed by mummification?
Dry gangrene
What are the three types of fat necrosis?
Enzymatic necrosis of fat
Traumatic necrosis of fat
Necrosis of abdominal fat of cattle
What term refers to the destruction of fat in the abdominal cavity and usually adjacent to the pancreas, by the action of activated pancreatic lipases?
Enzymatic necrosis of fat
When is traumatic necrosis of fat seen?
When fat is crushed
What is fat necrosis of abdominal fat of cattle characterized by?
Large masses of necrotic fat in the mesentery, omentum, and retroperitoneally
What term refers to death of the entire body?
Somatic death
What is the term for the contraction of muscles occurring after death?
Rigor mortis
When does rigor mortis commence after death?
One to six hours
How long does rigor mortis persist?
One to two days
What is gradual cooling of the cadaver?
Algor mortis
What is the gravitational pooling of blood to the down side of the animal?
Livor mortis
What are the general gross characteristics of postmortem clots?
Unattached to vessel walls and tend to be shiny and wet and form a perfect cast of vessel lumens
What are the general gross characteristics of antemortem mural arterial thrombi?
Attached to arterial walls, tend to be dry and duller in color, and are laminated with a tail extending downstream from the point of attachment.
What term is applied to the red staining of tissue, especially heart and arteries and veins beginning some hours after death?
Hemoglobin imbibition
What is the term used for the blue-green discoloration of the tissue by iron sulfide formed by the reaction of hydrogen sulfide generated by putrefactive bacteria on iron from hemoglobin released from lysed erythrocytes?
Mucosal sloughing occurs rapidly in what organ in ruminants?
When my lens opacity occur in the carcass?
When it is very cold or frozen
What is the term for the uptake and intracellular degradation of damaged or effete organelles?
What is the term for ingestion of dead or dying cells by phagocytic white cells?
How might autophagic vacuoles appear by light microscopy?
As eosinophilic inclusions
What is the term for residual bodies of autophagic vacuoles?
Cell stress or injury can lead to what three adaptive changes?
Increase in size of a tissue or organ
Decrease in tissue and cell size
Change to a different cell type
What is the term for an increase in the size of cells or organs?
What is the term for an increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ?
In what tissue is hypertrophy most common?
Striated muscle
What is the term for a reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another adult cell type of the same germ line?
Epithelial metaplasia is usually a result of what?
Chronic irritation
Which vitamin is important for normal differentiation of mucus secreting epithelium?
Vitamin A
What is the term for the decrease in size of amount of a cell, tissue, or organ after normal growth has been reached?
What is the term for the decrease in size of a tissue caused by reduction in the number of cells and is usually used to refer to physiologic processes?
Serous atrophy of fat may indicate what?
Phospholipids are components of what that are found in necrotic cells?
Myelin figures
What is the term for the accumulation of triglycerides and other lipid metabolites within parenchymal cells?
What are the five mechanisms of hepatic lipidosis?
1. Excessive delivery of free fatty acids either from the gut or from adipose tissue
2. Decreased beta-oxidation of fatty acids to ketones and other substances because of mitochondrial injury
3. Impaired synthesis of apoprotein
4. Impaired combination of triglycerides and protein to form lipoprotein
5. Impaired release of lipoproteins from the hepatocyte
Triglycerides can only be transported out of hepatocytes if they are converted to lipoproteins by what?
In domestic animals, hepatic lipidosis most commonly arises from what?
Conditions that cause increased mobilization of body fat stores
What are the gross characteristics of hepatic lipidosis?
Liver is enlarged, yellow, soft and friable, and the edges of the lobes are rounded and broad
Name three fat stains.
Sudan III
Scharlach R
How is glycogen confirmed?
By the PAS and PAS-diastase reactions
Variable amounts of glycogen are normally stored in what two cell types?
In diabetes mellitus, glycogen is found in what three cell types?
Epithelial cells of renal proximal tubules
B cells of the Islets of Langerhans
How is glycogen best preserved?
By fixing tissue in an alcoholic fixative
What is the term which means having a homogeneous, eosinophilic, and glassy appearance?
What are three categories of intracellular hyaline proteins?
Resorption droplets
Russell bodies in plasma cells
Those caused by defects in protein folding
Increased incidence of what is the most consistent age-related change in canine hepatocytes?
Crystalline protein inclusions
Which viruses tend to produce only intranuclear inclusion?
DNA viruses such as herpesviruses, adenoviruses, and parvoviruses
Which virus causes both intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusions in nervous tissue?
Viral inclusions are usually surrounded by what?
A clear halo
Irregularly shaped intranuclear inclusion bodies that are acid-fast may be present in renal tubular epithelial cells in what pathologic condition?
Lead poisoning
What is the most frequently used special stain for amyloid?
Congo red
What is the most common form of amyloidosis in human beings?
Immunocyte dyscrasia
What is the most common form of amyloidosis in animals?
Reactive systemic amyloidosis
Functionally in dogs, amyloid deposits in what organ are most important?
What is the most frequent site in reactive systemic amyloidosis?