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168 Cards in this Set

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The five criteria for disease transmission:
1 - disease must be contagious 2- must have a means of transportation 3 - must have a way into the body 4 - disease must be infectious 5 - individual must be susceptible to invading organism
infection caused by inhaling viruses or bacteria carried in the air
airbone infection
infection from inhaling droplets of moisture carrying bacteria or viruses (usually within 3 feet)
droplet infection
transmission straight from person to person such as kissing
direct contact
transmission from touching surfaces that have been contaminated
indirect contact
indirect contact can also be in the form of _________ infection
waterborne
This disease has been known to be transmitted by shellfish that have been living in sewage contaminated water
hepatitis A
The transfer of an infectious agent from one person or source to another by a carrier such as an insect.
vector-borne infection
Governmental agency responsible for the safety of employees
Occupational Safety and Hazard Administration - OSHA
OSHA has mandated infection control programs targeted to reduce the chance of exposure to HIV and ______
hepatitus B
biological substances such as medical waste that pose a treat to humans
biohazard
Written material information sheet for products that contain a hazardous chemical
Material Safety Data Sheets - MSDS
Since 1992 OSHA's _______ program has been in place at all labs.
Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogen Program
The CDC's specimen handling precaution are known as
Standard Precautions
Hazardous waste removal must be disposed of in proper containers, identified with biohazard labels, and Sharps must be placed in puncture-proof containers...and then they are:
incinerated
AIDS was recognized the the US in ____(year) and reported in professional journals in ____
1978 / 1981
WBC's found in lymph nodes
lymphocytes
Killer cells - lymphocytes responsible for killing cells bearing a specific kind of antigen
T-cytotoxic cells
Lymphocytes that suppress antibody production as well as the production of T-helper and T-cytotoxic lymphocytes
T-suppressor cells
T-helper cells form different proteins called ____ and ____
interleukins and interferons
interleukins and interferons stimulate the production of two T-lymphocytes known as:
T-cytotoxic (killer) and T-suppressor cells
Patients who lack a specific blood clotting factor and tend to bleed profusely
hemophiliacs
Having no signs or symptoms of a disease
asymptomatic
infection by candida albicans
candidiasis
Inflammation of the female pelvic organs with can extend to other abdominal organs
pelvic inflammatory disease
Deterioration in function of the nerves located in the periphery of the body. This could include decreased sensatation of pain.
peripheral neuropathy
Infection by the protozoa cryptosporidium
cryptosporidosis
This comes from the herpes group of viruses, and can result in acute illness characterized by fever and inflammation of the liver and lungs.
cytomegalovirus
degenerative disease of the brain
encephalopathy
generalized enlargement of the lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy
lack or loss of appetite
anorexia
Pneumonia caused by the protozoa Pneumocystis carinii, causing severe respiratory distress and respiratory failure
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
inflammation of the intestines (enterocolitis) by the protozoa cryptosporidium
cryptosporidium enterocolitis
The infectious agent causing vaginal yeast infections and oral thrush
Candida albicans
A malignant tumor that appears blue-red in color, usually appears on the lower extremities.
Kaposi's Sarcoma
A protozoa that invades the body and causes cysts to develop in muscle tissue and the vital organs
toxoplasmosis
This is also called cat scratch fever, causes development of cysts in tissues such as heart and brain
toxoplasmosis
A member of the herpes family of viruses, it causes fever and inflammation of the liver and lungs.
Cytomegalovirus
a protozoa that thrives in the intestines of many different animals, in humans the infection causes severe diarrhea accompanied by weight loss.
Cryptosporidium Enderocolitis
The usual culprit in yeast infections and oral thrush, symptoms include: Lesions in mouth appearing as white patches over an inflamed area.
candida albicans
An infection occuring in the small intestine
enteric infection
Occurring suddenly and with great intensity
fulminating
formally called infectious hepatitis
hepatitis A
An enteric infection that 33 percent of all americans show evidence of having had.
hepatitis A
formerly called serum hepatitis
hepatitis B
infection that occurs by subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous injection
parenteral infection
a viral disease that means inflammation of the liver
hepatitis
a parenteral infection able to survive for long periods of time outside the body which inflames the liver, may be spread sexually, and has a vaccine.
hepatitis B
has been called parenteral non-A, non-B
hepatitis C
a parenteral infection of the liver spread transmitted by bloodborne contamination or sexual contact. It may survive in dried blood for up to three weeks, including on toothbrushes or razors.
hepatitis C
also called delta hepatitis
hepatitis D
this is associated with a simultaneous infection or co-infection with hepatitis b (HBV)
hepatitis D
A patient with HBV who suddenly deteriorates should be suspected of having a co-infection with ___
hepatitis D
This has also been called enteric non-A, non-B hepatitis
hepatitis E
this type of liver inflammating virus is typically seen in young to middle aged patients. Pregnant women are most susceptible to it.
hepatitis E
This virus causing inflammation of the liver is spread through exposure to contaminated food and water especially after natural disasters with flooding or contaminated water with raw sewage.
hepatitis E
virus found to cause inflammation of liver when injected into study animals, there is controversy regarding its actual presence
hepatitis F
this inflammation of the liver is caused by a bloodborne virus, and is often found as a co-infection with HCV
hepatitis G
phase were symptoms indicate the onset of an illness
prodromal phase
phase of hepatitis characterizzed by jaundice
icteric phase
having no signs or symptoms of disease
asymptomatic
examination by touching
palpation
symptom of hepatitis characterized by the yellowing of the skin and white portions of the eyes
jaundice
during this phase of hepatitis, the patients urine will turn dark brown
prodromal phase
in this phase of hepatitis, the patient will complain of flu-like symptoms. As it progresses he my develop hives, causing itching, or if he smokes, a distaste for cigarettes.
prodromal phase
jaundice appears in this phase of hepatitis
icteric phase
jaundice will peak in one to two weeks, then gradually fade during what is known as this phase
recovery phase
hepatitis usually resolves in ___ to ___ weeks
4 to 8 weeks
hepatitis __ and __ have a high incidence of becoming chronic
hepatitis B and C
hepatitis __ rarely develops into a chronic infection
hepatitis A
a degenerative condition of the liver in which the lobes of the liver are covered with fibrous tissue and the liver tissue is infiltrated with fat. Liver function deteriorates
cirrhosis
hepatitis A and E are considered ______ infections
enteric
hepatitis __ and __ have vaccines
hepatitis A and B
immune globulin (gamma globulin) can be administered both pre and postexposure, protecting from infection by hepatitis __ and __
hepatitis A and E
this hepatitis has been labeled a silent epidemic
hepatitis C
there is no cure and no vaccine for this hepatitis, which can survive for prolonged periods of time in dried blood
hepatitis C
this type of meningitis can be contracted from a prior infection such as the mumps, measles, or rubella
viral meningitis
sometimes called aseptic meningitis
viral meningitis
this type of meningitis can come from droplet infection, or direct contact
bacterial meningitis
head trauma can cause this type of meningitis
bacterial meningitis
this meningitis has a sudden onset after a respiratory illness
bacterial meningitis
Symptoms: intense headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, may also be lethargic, delirious, comatose, or seizures
bacterial meningitis
in patients with bacterial meningitis and a stiff neck, sudden flexion of the neck will result in the involuntary flexion of the ____ and ____
hips and knees
an abnormal response in people seen when the sole of the foot is scraped. The response is upward flexion of the big toe and fanning out of the remaining toes.
Babinski's reflex
a patien laying supine can extend his legs, but if the leg is flexed toward the abdomen, the patient cannot exted the knee. This is known as
Kernig's sign
This can be fatal in a few hours
bacterial meningitis
when dealing with someone with bacterial meningitis, wear
gloves, mask, goggles
an airborne disease transmitted by inhaling dried or moist droplets of infectious material coughed up or sneezed by the patient
turberculosis
most common site of infection for tuberculosis is this organ
the lung
tuberculosis usually infects the lung, but can also infect these organs
the spine or other bony areas, meninges, kidneys, liver and spleen
name the two types of infection involved with tuberculosis
primary and secondary
this type of tuberculosis is seen as an initial infection, which is small and usually resolves with no further spread
primary tuberculosis
this type of tuberculosis can be a reactivation of a prior infection or a reunification
secondary tuberculosis
Characteristic of a person whose immune system has been weakened and cannot resist infection by bacterial or viral agents
immunocompromised
symptoms of this include fever, chills, weakness, and night sweats, weight loss, shortness of breath, productive cough. The sputum appears green to yellow in color, and may contain blood.
tuberculous
after a patient has had TB for 4 to 12 weeks, these form
tubercles
This consists of fibrous tissue to wall off infections
tubercles
mucus secretion of the airways this is coughed from the lungs and expelled through the mouth
sputum
coughing blood
hemoptysis
abnormal curvature of the spine often referred to as a hunchback
kyphosis
when tuberculosis spreads to the spine, the extensive necrosis of the tissue may lead to
kyphosis
periodic testing for TB requires a ___ skin test
PPD
formally known as varicella
chickenpox
another name for chickenpox, a viral disease causing a rash
varicella
this disease is more frequently seen in winter and spring
chickenpox (varicella)
chickenpox is contagious for __ weeks
2 weeks
chickenpox ends when this occurs
all the vesicles have scabbed over
Symptoms: mild headache, decreased appetite, moderate fever. 24 hours later, rash
chickenpox (varicella)
rare complication of chickenpox include:
myocarditis, hepatitus, encephalopathy
a small elevation of the skin containing fluid
vesicles
difficulty or painful swallowing
dysphagia
the sensation of difficult or labored breathing
dyspnea
inflammation of the heart muscle
myocarditis
a degenerative disease of the brain
encephalopathy
the biggest defense against varicella is this
having the disease as a child (chickenpox)
German measles
rubella (3 day measles)
rubella
german measles (3 day measles)
3-day measles
rubella (german measles)
common childhood viral illness typically prevalent in the spring
rubella (german measles)
rubella is transmitted by
droplet infection
Symptoms: short period of fatigue and general uneasiness. Shortly thereafter, a rash appears on the face and neck and spreads quickly to the trunk. Lymph nodes may be swollen and tender. The rash fades within three days.
rubella (german measles)
inflammation of the lining of the nose and nasal passageways that can lead to a runny nose or nasal stuffiness
rhinitis
a pregnant woman with this can suffer a spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and birth defects in children born of mother having the disease n the first trimester
rubella (german measles)
measles
rubeola
rubeola
measles
inflammation of the lining of the eyelids
confunctivitis
small, irregular bright red spots with a bluish-white speck in the center of the spot found in the mouth of patients with measles (rubeola)
Koplik's spots
Koplik's spots are found in the mouth of patients with
rubeola (measles)
Symptoms: two stages - first stage appears after an incubation period of one or two weeks, patient will have a fever, runny nose, cough, and conjunctivitis. May have headache and neck pain. second stage is characterized by spots appearing in the patient's mouth. One or two days later, the patient develops a rash, which begins in front or below the ears and quickly spreads. The fever may approach 104 degrees
rubeola (measles)
inflammation of the middle ear, common in childhood, that has a variety of causes
otitis media
otitis media
ear infection
Mumps
epidemic parotitis
epidemic parotitis
mumps
inflammation of the paratid salivary gland. These glands are the largest of the salivary glands and are located on either side of the face, in front of and below the ears
partotitis
This is more prevalent in late winter and early spring
mumps (epidemic parotitis)
this virus is spread by droplet infection or with an object contaminated with the infected person's saliva
mumps (epidemic parotitis)
Symptoms: fatigue, weakness, chills, low grade fever, enlargement of the salivary glands, pain with chewing or swallowing, neck swelling, fever may reach 104 degrees
mumps (epidemic parotitis)
may cause swelling of a testicle in adults, or an ovary in women
epidemic parotitis (mumps)
inflammation of the pancreas
pancreatitis
inflammation of the prostate gland
prostatitis
inflammation of the kidney
nephritis
inflammation of the breast
mastitis
infection that affects the mouth or the genital area
herpes simplex
Symptoms: infection of the lips, mouth, face, vesicles appear singly or in clusters, eruption may be painful
herpes simplex I (HSV-1)
Symptoms: infecton of the genitalia, painful lesions, vesicles erode and form small ulceration that crust.
herpes simplex II (HSV-2) or genital herpes
infection found in AIDS patients is a yeast like fungus that can appear as white patches in the mouth and can lead to difficult or painful swallowing
candida albicans
in using the lymphocytes to make copies of itself, HIV:
destroys the cells
T/F enlarged lymph nodes are a sign of HIV or AIDS
false
the jaundice seen in hepatitis may initially be seen in the:
eyes
most common cause of influenza is the
influenza virus
shingles cause pain or sensitivity where an outbreak of ____ appear
vesicles
a virus transmitted in droppings from rodents such as rats and mice
hantavirus
this infection affects most kids and is one of the most common causes of diarrhea
rotavirus
commonly known as shingles, this is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a limited area on one side of the body, often in a stripe
herpes zoster (chickenpox in adults)
this is a neurotrophic virus that causes fatal disease in human and animals. transmission can occur through the saliva of animals
rabies virus
inflammation of the flap that sits at the base of the tongue
epiglottis
syphilis is caused by a:
bacteria
these spots may look like grains of sand or white spots on a reddened area, or red spots with a blue dot
Koplik's spots
whooping cough is also known as
pertussis
pertussis
whooping cough
Symptoms: pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema, vomit from prolonged coughing and chocking on mucus, cough up and expel thick mucus from the airways
whooping cough (pertussis)
childhood demyelinating bacterial disease that is mostly eraciated in the U.S.
diphtheria
Symptoms: sore throat, gray or dirty yellow patchy area in mouth, hard to swallow
diphtheria
a superficial bacterial skin infection most common among children 2 to 6 years old, characterized by encrusted yellow sores on the skin
impetigo
Symptoms: child with small skin lesion on face near mouth with postules, some of which have ruptured and have crusts
impetigo
Symptoms: child with severe barking cough, history of bronchiolitis, inspiratory stridor
croup
a group of respiratory diseases that often affects infants and children [1] under age 6. It is characterized by a barking cough; a whistling, obstructive sound as the child breathes in; and hoarseness due to obstruction in the region of the larynx
croup
episodes oth the croup typically last for 3-4 days, unless
respiratory failure develops