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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
early indicator if ICP
decreased level of consciousness
cushing triad is an early/late manifestation of ICP
late
casued by impaired BBB function resulting from injury, infections, tumors, or ischemia; leads to ECF between brain cells
vasogenic
neurons and neuroglia swell and may rupture as excessive fluid moves into them; causes water intoxication or severe ischemia that disables the sodium pump; more likely to affect gray matter
cytogenic
ICP pt blood pressure is significant;y increased, especially the _____ due to systemic vasoconstricition. As a result, pulse pressure is _______
systolic

widened
a stroke leads to _____ ischemia
focal
ischemia can deplete the brain of energy within ______
2-4 minutes
what can cause global ischemia?
heart attack and circulatory shock
elbows are flexed in
decorticate posturing
skull fracture with multiple fracture lines
comminuted
ex of primary head injuries
concussion, contusion, diffuse axonal injury
_____ is the most common cause of seconday brain injury
ischemia
boy rides bike, has injury is concious then unconcsious, then conscious, what kind of hematoma does he have?
epidural
boy has tear in the right middle meningeal artery, pupils reflect a dilated _____ pupil and ____ sided hemiplegia of the face and arm
right

left
Accident, then severe headache, lethargy, and confusion = _______ hematoma
subacute subdural hematoma
subdural hematoma is located between the dura mater and the _________. The torn vessels are likely to be ______ which bleed relatively _______
arachnoid membrane

veins

slowly
High score on Glasgow Coma scale is 14. 3 aspects that are measured are:
eye opening
motor response
verbal response
thrombotic strokes are or are not associated with increased activity in older adults?
are not
Angina and TIA are warning signs that ...
there is decreased perfusion
ischemic (thrombotic) and hemmoragic strokes have _______ treatments
different
______ meningitis is more fatal
bacterial
brief blank stare and unresponsiveness is _______ seizure
absence
clonic component of seizures is
rhythmic contraction and relaxatio of muscles
sundown happens in what stage alzheimers
second
neurotransmitter required for memory
acetylcholine. Decreased in Alzheimers
autosomal dominant disorder tranmistted on chromo 4 causes movement disorders (chorea and later rigidity) personality changes, dementia
Huntingtons
vitamin B defi. in alcoholics severly affects recent memory and eye muscles, confabulation is a distinctive feature
Wernicke-Korsakoff
prions, rapidly progressing
Creutzfed-Jakab
atrophy of frontal and temporal lobes, may involve echolia, apathy, and hypotonia
Pick
second most common dementia, risk greater in smokers and hypertension
vascular dementia
generalized seizure "drop attacks" related to a brief loss of muscle tone
atonic
simple partial seizure
no loss of consciousness
one hemisphere
S/S ruptured subarachnoid aneurysm
severe headache
nuchal rigidity
photophobia
altered extraocular function
TIA lasts
less than one hour and is focal
dysarthria
slurred speech
ataxia
no balance, posture or muscle tone
thrombolytic agents are helpful for _______ strokes
ischemic
atrial fibrillation increases risk for
embolic stroke
3 primary head injuries
concussion
contusion
diffuse axonal injury
principle excitatory transmitter in brain
glutamate
triggers for autonomic dysreflexia...

it causes...
full blader or rectum

exaggerated sympathetic responses below the site of injury. Vasospasm results in pallor, goose bumps, and HIGH blood pressure with headaches

It is an emergency!
autonomic dysreflexia occurs when the injury is ...
T6 and above
In Autonomic dyreflexia, sympathetic signs are present in ______ body, and absent in ______ body
lower

upper
masklike face
parkinsons
levodopa works by raising
dopamine
myasthenia gravis affects the
eyelids/ muscles in the body

It is not a sensory disorder
athetosis
wormlike movements of extremities, trunk or face
"wry neck" is most common form of this disorder
dystonia
brief rapid movements of head and extremities, finger curling piano playing type movement of fingers
chorea
Gullian barre is
polyneurapathy
carpal tunnel is
mononeurapathy
destroys acetylcholine receptors
myasthenia gravis