Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Identify three parts of the first line of defense againse pathogens
1. Physical
2. Mechanical
3. Biochemical
Physical defense
the tight weave of epithealiliam cells that line the skin and stomach mucosa
Mechanical defense
Cilia, sneezing, cough, vomiting, flushing from the kidneys
Biochemical defense
most of these have a low ph and attack the cell wall of the gram - bacteria
Cell injury leads to what
Mast cell degranulation which activates the plasma system and the complement clotting Kinin
Pathogenic invasion
This causes the release of cellular products That activate the Plasma system and compliment clotting Kinin
What are the 3 lines of human defense against injury or pathogenic invasion
1) physical,Mechanical and biochemical (keeps the junk out to begin with)
2) Inflammatory response (very nonspecific)
3) The adaptive immune system(very specific, and has a memory)
Compliment clotting Kinin
causes what
Vasodilation = redness and heat
Vascular permeability = edema
Cellular infiltration = Pus
Thrombosis = clots
Stimulation of nerve endings = pain
What is infection
it is the colonization of a host with the intention of the new species to use the hosts resoources usually at the expense of the host
What is inflammation
This is the bodies second line of defense after it has been invaded by a new species
What is the mechanism of infection and cellular injury by bacteria
Bacteria are single-celled organisms that are much simpler. For example, they have no nucleus. They are perhaps 1/100th the size of a human cell and might measure 1 micrometer long. Bacteria are completely independent organisms able to eat and reproduce, when they reproduce in great numbers they can cause severe problems in all parts of your body or in just one local area. They will feed on your cells and cause the release of toxins into your body causing an immune response. A large amount of damage comes from the endotoxins and exotoxins produce by them
What is the mechanism of infection and cellular injury by a virus
A virus is a different breed altogether. A virus is not really alive. A virus particle is nothing but a fragment of DNA in a protective coat. The virus comes in contact with a cell, attaches itself to the cell wall and injects its DNA (and perhaps a few enzymes) into the cell. The DNA uses the machinery inside the living cell to reproduce new virus particles. Eventually the hijacked cell dies and bursts, freeing the new virus particles; or the viral particles may bud off of the cell so it remains alive. In either case, the cell is a factory for the virus. Also they may be able to turn the host cell cancerous
Describe the mechanism of ininfection and cellular injury by fungi
requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development, likes moist environments, feeds on organisms or the remains of other organisms to get its necessary energy to survive.
Fungi will colonize and destroy tissue that it attaches to, due to their thick walls they are usually immune to bacterial cell wall inhibitors, the fungi will digest karitin
What are the signs of systems of the inflamitory response/including the changes at the vascular level
Observable characteristics are redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
Changes in the microcirculation include;
1.blood vessel dilation
2.increased vascular permeability and leakage of fluid out of the vessel
3.White blood cell adherence to the inner walls of vessels and their migration through vessel walls to the site of injury.
Describe what happens during local manifestation of inflammatory response
1. local manifestation are the result of vascular changes associated with the inflammatory process including vasodilation and increased capillary pereability symptoms include redness, heat, swelling and pain
Describe what happens during systemic manifestation of inflammatory response
1. the primary systemic effects are 1)fever 2) leukocytosis, which is is an elevation of the white blood cell count (the leukocyte count) above the normal range
-Also an increase of plasma protien start to circulate. These proteins are also part of the immune system (immunoglobulins), help blood to clot (clotting factors),
Characterize chronic inflammation
Inflamation that lasts 2 weeks or longer
It is characterized by dense infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages, the body may wall off and isolate the infection to protect against tissue damage by formation of granuloma
What is granuloma
a granuloma is a group of epithelioid macrophages surrounded by a lymphocyte cuff. Granulomas are small nodules that are seen in a variety of diseases
Describe the phases of tissure healing
1.Acute inflammation which may include exudate.
A) Macrophages release angiogenesis factor to attract epithelial cells and vascular cells. B)Fibroblast -activating factor to attract fibroblast
2. Reconstruction phase, Epithelialization includes formation of granulation tissue, inward migration for fibroblasts and the beginning of collagen synthesis and secretion, scar tissue forms and contraction and differentiation begins
3. Completion of contraction,differentation, and remodeling of scar with disappearance of capillaries from scar tissue
An exudate is any fluid that filters from the circulatory system into lesions or areas of inflammation. Its composition varies but generally includes water and the dissolved solutes of the blood, some or all plasma proteins, white blood cells, platelets and
Describe bone healing
1. Reactive Phase
i. Fracture and inflammatory phase
ii. Granulation tissue formation
2. Reparative Phase
iii. Callus formation
iv. Lamellar bone deposition
3. Remodeling Phase
v. Remodeling to original bone contour
Reactive Phase
blood vessels constrict, stopping any further bleeding.[1] Within a few hours after fracture, blood cells, known as a "hematoma", form a blood clot. All of the cells within the blood clot degenerate and die.[2] Some of the cells outside of the blood clot, also degenerate and die.[3] Within this same area, the fibroblasts survive and replicate. They form a loose aggregate of cells, interspersed with small blood vessels, known as granulation tissue.[4]
Reproductive Phase
the fracture gap develop into chondroblasts and form hyaline cartilage. The periosteal cells distal to the fracture gap develop into osteoblasts and form woven bone. The fibroblasts within the granulation tissue also develop into chondroblasts and form hyaline cartilage.[5] These two new tissues grow in size until they unite with their counterparts from other pieces of the fracture. This process forms the fracture callus.[6] Eventually, the fracture gap is bridged by the hyaline cartilage and woven bone, restoring some of its original strength.
Remodeling Phase
substitutes the trabecular bone with "compact bone". The trabecular bone is first resorbed by osteoclasts, Then osteoblasts deposit compact bone within the resorption pit to original shape and strength
List causes that delay healing from a local and systemic factor and age related issues
From a local factor when you age you lose elastin and subcutaneous fat, also atrophy of the sweat glands and atrophy of epidermal arterioles cause elderly to heal slowly.
Systemic factors would be thymus gland dysfunction, cardiovascular damage, bowel motility, Hepatic enzyme production, Respiratory weakness, Renal and Urinary problems and the lack of intrinsic factors in their GI and Metobolic capacity, They may also be on anti inflammatory steroids that can interfere with the healing process
Compliment system
Complements are manufactured in the liver. The complement proteins are activated by and work with (complement) the antibodies, They cause lysing (bursting) of cells and signal to phagocytes that a cell needs to be removed,,,Put another way, antibodies "finger" the target, complement destroys it
Clotting system
Plasma components involved in the clotting of blood including fibrinogen, prothrombin, thromboplastin and calcium ions
Kinin System
The kinins are potent vasoactive basic peptides and their properties are wide ranging, including the ability to increase vascular permeability, cause vasodilation, pain, and the contraction of smooth muscle,
Directional movement and attraction of microorganisms or phagocytes to substances released in the environment or tissue
Mast cells
A cell of the connective tissue that produces substances that cause activation of the inflammatory response, vasoconstrictioni and muscle contractions
Cell eating, it is an endocytosis in where a large cell incorporates bacteria or dead cells into vesicles and digests them
A phagocyte
A phagocyte produced in bone marrow that migrates into tissues and is tranformed into macrophages
Phagocyte that is produced from a monocyte from the bone marrow
Phagocyte that destroys antigen -antibody complexes, allergens and inflammatory chemicals.. good for fighting parasites
systemic infection in which pathogens are present in the circulation blood having spread from an infection in any part of the body, diagnosed using cultures
The presence of bacteria in the blood
Disease caused by fungi
Number one cause of death in the world
Virulence refers to the degree of pathogenicity of a microbe, or in other words the relative ability of a microbe to cause disease
Classes of infection include


Chlamydia /major infectious cause of human eye and genital disease.

Rickettsiae / Rickettsia species are carried as parasites

mycoplasma /Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack cell walls. Because they lack cell walls, they are unaffected by most antibiotics such as penicillin that target cell wall synthesis.


protozoa / play a vital role in controlling bacteria population ,Some protozoa have the ability to form a cyst to protect it from harsh conditions

helminths / worms
What do endotoxins produce when excreted from bacteria
What can bacterial exotoxins do.
they can damage the cell membrane of the host cell and prevent phagocytosis
What is the risk involved in Septicemia
endotoxins released by bacteria can start vasoactive mediators that increase the permeability of blood vessels. leakage from all of these blood vessels can cause hyptension which can become septic shock
Where does mycoses grow
on or near the skin or mucous membranes usually produce mild and superficial disease,, Dermatophytes are fungi that invade the skin, hair, nails
What is the halmark of most infections
What three plasma protien systems provide a biomechanical barriear against invasion
Complement system
Clotting system
kinnin system
What does the clotting cascade do for the body
prevents the spread of the microrganisms and provides framework for the repair process
what does activation of the compliment system do
activation of anaphylatoxins
cell lysis
leukocyte chemotaxis
What is the predominant phagocyte
when do monocytes and macrophages arive
after Neutrophils and clean up the mess
What do natural killer t cells do from the thymus
they work on getting rid of the virus you have
Resolution `
Returning tissue to nearly normal structure and function
Formation of a scar
The final step in the Inflammatory phase
The two phases of resolution or repair
Reconstructive phase begins 3 or 4 days after the initial injury and continues for as long as 2 weeks
Maturation phase begins several weeks after injury and is normally complete within 2 years
What do the biochemical mediators do (histamine,bradykinin, leukotrienes,substance P and prostaglandins)
they stimulate the endothelial cells that line capillaries and venules to retract and create space at junctions between the cells alowing leukocytes and plasma to enter the surrounding tissue
Acute inflamation
1. cell injury
2. Activation of plasma system
a mast cell degranulation
b Release of cellular products
3. Compliment clotting kinin
a vasodialatioin
b vascular permibility
c cellular infiltration
d thrombosis
e stimulation of nerve endings (Pain)
Chronic inflammation
Persistant infection causes more response from neutraphils, constant inflamation, lymphocyte activation, Fibroblast activation, the lymphocyte,monocyte and macrophage will create pus and tissue repair will be a scar.
What is fibrosis
A process that occurs normally in the formation of a scar tissue
unplanned opening of the skin
spilling of abdominal contents
Dry, Wet, Gas, Blackened tissue caused by lack of blood supply
leather black sluff like a burn
Nonvialble tissue
holpital aquired
remove dead tissue
helthy new tissue growht
inflammation of skin
Primary intention
wounds heal with minimal tissue loss
Secondayr intention
Wounds that heal from the inside out
Hydrogen peroxide, do not clean new healing wounds with it
First healing phase
3 lines of defense
imune or memory system
Mast cells
call out the cytokines
they live close to blood vessels and launch the defense which attracts the mediators, histimin does the vasodilation, norepi constricts the blood vessels and make sure you dont bleed to death
very sticky to start repair
this is what initiates the pain receptors
call all the mediator
anything over 10,000
white blood cell count
SED rate
eruthurocyte sediment rate
test for fibrinogen cascade
1-25 femal
0-17 male
C-reactive protien
nonspacific test for a protient that are triggered durng inflamation
Greater than 10 is significant
immiture neutraphills

These would indication infection for a long time

Would also indicate a shift to the left because the regular neutraphils are all used up.
Chronic inflamation
you will see a lot of monocytes, these turn into macrophages, protenase breaks down protien , fibroblast which makes fibrin.
describe what happens during chronic inflamation
monocytes take protenase and kill your cells and the fibroblast makes fibrin this fibrin stays and the tissue never gets a chance to heal due to constant inflamaiotn
return to original tissue
NICE work
you have scar tissue
the function of scar tissue is not as good and does not function the same ie (heart attack)
scar tissue is made of
collegen made of vitamin c
well it helps anyway
secondary intention
cyst, packing of a wound
Things that help tissue heal
good blood flow
what slows healing
nsaids decreases healing
anything that slows the flamitory process
bone ageing
marrow is replaced with fat
the disc space narrow due to deydration and cause short old people
Compartment syndrome
swelling of muscle inside the fascia
Bone healing
hematoma formation
Fibro cartilage starts, it is very fragile at this point
Calus and ossificaiton
then remodeling
Is bone healing a resoution or repair
Resolution if it returns to normal function
all this can take about a year
Clinicle healing happens when
the bone crosses the fracture site about 6 weeks
the fracture site needs to be pain free
the Fracture site is strong enought to resume function