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73 Cards in this Set

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What is Broca's area?
found on the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe, it is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension
What is Wernicke's area and where is it found?
located on the part of the brain where the temporal lobe and parietal lobe meet on the left hemisphere. Related to language, reading and writing.
What is the fifth lobe?
the limbic system, assoc. with memory, learning and emotion
this system is crucial for maintaining the state of consciousness and is the center of arousal and motivation
The reticular activating system
where is the reticular activating system located?
between the medulla oblongata and midbrain
this system is involved in emotion, motivation, and emotional association with memory
The limbic system
This part of the brain is involved in aggression, jealousy, and fear
Amygdala
This part of the brain is required for the formation of long-term memories
Hippocampus
Describe Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Results from chronic alcoholism
Caused by deficiency in thiamine(Vit B1)
Confabulation is the most distinctive feature
Other Sx: confusion, weakness and paralysis of extraoculor muscles
This disease is a rare transmissible form of dementia caused by prions
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
What is Bovine spongiform encephalitis caused by?
Prions
This type of dementia is assoc. with HTN, PVD, DM, MI, CVA
multi-infart dementia
This disease is characterized by cortical atrophy and loss of neurons, particularly in the parietal and temporal lobes
Alzheimer's
Name some amino acids implicated in mental illness
GABA - inhibitory
glycine - inhibitory
glutamate - excitatory
aspartate

These are implicated in anxiety disorders
Name the NTS that can be both excitatory and inhibitory in the brain
Acetylcholine
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine
underactivity of this NTS is implicated with Alzheimer's
Acetylcholine
overactivity of this excitatory neurotransmitter is thought to be involved with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

It is also involved in motivation, thought, and emotional regulation
Dopamine
This neurotransmitter is involved in the regulation of attention and complex cognitive functions
Serotonin (5-HT)

Underactivity causes depression and OCD
How do antipsychotic meds work?
By blocking dopamine receptors
How do antidepressants work?
by increasing the activity of Norepi and serotonin at the postsynaptic membreane receptors
Name some categories of antidepressants
MAOIs
TCAs
SRIs
what do the positive symptoms of schizophrenia include?
delusions, false beliefs, and hallucinations
what do the negative symptoms of schizophrenia include?
absence of normal social and interpersonal relationships; lack of motivation, apathy, emotional expression
This type of anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive,prolonged (<6 months) uncontrollable worry
Generalized anxiety disorder
This type of anxiety disorder is characterized by repetitive thoughts and compulsions
OCD
This type of anxiety disorder is characterized by an intense fear with neurologic, cardiac, respiratory and psych symptoms
Panic disorder
This is a hereditary disorder characterized by chronic progressive chorea, psychological changes and dementia
Huntington's Disease
What are benzodiazepines used for?
short-term relief of severe, disabling anxiety or insomnia
What are the symptoms of increased ICP?
headache, vomiting, papilledema or lateral rectus palsy; if obstruction is not relieved, mental deterioration eventually occurs
This type of brain injury occurs when CSF is prevented from reaching the arachnoid villi as can happen with aqueductal stenosis
Noncommunicating or obstructive hydrocephalus
What structures are included in the diencephalon?
the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem
what structure is the reticular activating system linked with?
The limbic system
Impaired consciousness implies diffuse injury to this part of the brain
The RAS at any level (medulla through thalamus)and both cerebral hemispheres
The content and cognition aspects of consciousness are determined by a functioning what?
cerebral cortex
what is the Glasgow coma score for someone that opens their eyes in reponse to pain, has decorticate flexion and has incomprehensible verbal sounds
Eye opening = 2
Motor = 3
Verbal = 2

Total = 7
This artery is a continuation of the internal carotid and the major vascular source for the language cortices(frontal and superior temporal), auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus), and the somesthetic cortex (postcentral gyrus, parietal)
The middle cerebral artery
A stroke involving these arteries would give you visual disturbances, dystaxia, vertigo, dysphagia and dysphonia
Basilar and vertebral arteries
A stroke involving this artery will cause greater weakness in the legs than in the arms
Anterior cerebral artery
A stroke involving this artery will cause greater weakness in the upper extremities than in the lower extremities; affects face and arm
Middle cerebral artery
this type of cerebral bleed is most commonly caused by ruptured aneurysms (berry) and trauma
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
what are the 2 signs indicative of meningeal irritation?
Kernig's sign - resistance to extension of the knee while the person is lying with the hip flexed at a right angle

Brudzinski's - neck flexion induces flexion of the hip and knee
What organisms are assoc. with bacterial meningitis?
Strep pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
H. influenzae
Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus)
In this type of meningitis you would see lymphocytes in the CSF rather than PMNs
Viral meningitis
What is the most common primary brain tumor in adults?
neoplasms of astrocytic origin (glial tumors)
what are the 2 categories of glial tumors?
astrocytic and oligodendroglial
what are ependymomas
brain tumor arising from ventricular epithelium; most commonly affects the 4th ventricle and the spinal cord
This brain tumor is common in immunocompromised pts and is assoc. with EBV and is derived from large B cells;
the most common presenting signs are behavioral and cognitive changes
Primary CNS lymphomas
this type of seizure spreads to both hemispheres and involves loss of consciousness; also referred to as temporal lobe seizures
Complex partial seizure
this seizure is common in children and presents with a blank stare, motionless and unresponsiveness
Absence seizure
What is the most common major motor (grand mal) seizure?
Tonic-Clonic seizures
This artery is a continuation of the internal carotid and the major vascular source for the language cortices(frontal and superior temporal), auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus), and the somesthetic cortex (postcentral gyrus, parietal)
The middle cerebral artery
A stroke involving these arteries would give you visual disturbances, dystaxia, vertigo, dysphagia and dysphonia
Basilar and vertebral arteries
A stroke involving this artery will cause greater weakness in the legs than in the arms
Anterior cerebral artery
A stroke involving this artery will cause greater weakness in the upper extremities than in the lower extremities; affects face and arm
Middle cerebral artery
this type of cerebral bleed is most commonly caused by ruptured aneurysms (berry) and trauma
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
what are the 2 signs indicative of meningeal irritation?
Kernig's sign - resistance to extension of the knee while the person is lying with the hip flexed at a right angle

Brudzinski's - neck flexion induces flexion of the hip and knee
What organisms are assoc. with bacterial meningitis?
Strep pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
H. influenzae
Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus)
In this type of meningitis you would see lymphocytes in the CSF rather than PMNs
Viral meningitis
What is the most common primary brain tumor in adults?
neoplasms of astrocytic origin (glial tumors)
what are the 2 categories of glial tumors?
astrocytic and oligodendroglial
what are ependymomas
brain tumor arising for ventricular epithelium; most commonly affects the 4th ventricle and the spinal cord
This brain tumor is common in immunocompromised pts and is assoc. with EBV and is derived from large B cells;
the most common presenting signs are behavioral and cognitive changes
Primary CNS lymphomas
this type of seizure spreads to both hemispheres and involves loss of consciousness; also referred to as temporal lobe seizures
Complex partial seizure
this seizure is common in children and presents with a blank stare, motionless and unresponsiveness
Absence seizure
What is the most common major motor (grand mal) seizure?
Tonic-Clonic seizures
What are the most common predisposing factors for hemorrhagic stroke?
advancing age and hypertension
What are the most common cerebral aneurysm?
small saccular aneurysms called berry aneurysms
What is the definitive diagnostic tool for detecting an aneurysm?
conventional catheter angiography
What are the 2 types of acute infectious meningitis?
acute purulent meningitis (usually bacterial)

acute lymphocytic meningitis (usually viral)
How is the presentation of patient with encephalitis different from a patient with meningitis?
both are characterized by fever, headache, and nuchal rigidity

encephalitis more often presents with neurologic disturbances (lethargy, disorientation, seizrues, focal paralysis, delirium, & coma)
what are the 2 subdivisions of the anterolateral pathway?
Neospinothalamic
paleospinothalamic
This sensory tract carries bright pain and provides for relative rapid transmission of sensory info to the thalamus
neospinothalamic tract
How is position sense mediated?
Through imput from proprioceptive receptors (muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs) located in muscles, tendons, and joint capsules