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80 Cards in this Set

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WHAT IS HIRSUTISM
Abnormal growth and distribution of hair on the face, body, and pubic area. In a male pattern, in females
Name two types of stress fractures
FATIGUE- caused by abnormal stress or torque applied to a bone with normal ability to deform and recover INSUFFICIENCY- occur in bones lacking the normalability to deform and recover RESUKT: of normal weight bearing or activity (osteoporosis)
Transverse fracture
occurs straight across the bone
spiral fracture
encircles the bone
oblique fracture
occurs at an oblique angle to the shaft of the bone
linear fracture
runs parallel to the long axis of the bone
torus fracture
cortex buckles but does not break
bowing fracture
complete fracture of one bone, other bone bends happens in paired bones ex. Radius and ulna
greenstick fracture
perforates one cortex and splinters the spongy bone ex. Damage to young tree branch
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)
a myopathy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene located in the short arm of the x-chromosome dystrophin is present in normal muscle cells, is abnormal in structure, reduced or absent in those with DMD Usually idenified at around 3 yo
eval and treatment(DMD)
confirmed by CK measurments, CK is 20X higher, no effective cure, primary goal is maintaining function as long as possible
Alopecia
hair loss
Macule
freckle, flat mole
Papule
wart, elevated mole
patch
irregular shaped macule, larger than 1cm in diameter
plaque
psoriasis
wheal
allergic reaction, insect bite, TB test
Nodule
1-2cm in diameter, lipomas
tumor
uncontrolled proliferation of cells
vesicle
chicken pox, shingles
bulla
blister, vesicle greater than 1 cm in diameter
pustule
acne, impetigo
cyst
elevated, circumscribed, encapsulated lesion, in dermis or subQ, filled with liquid or semisolid liquid
telangiectasia
fine red lines, rosecia
lichenification
chronic dermatitis
erythema multiforme (Steven-Johnson Syndrome)
inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes…..associated with immunologic or toxic reactions to a drug or herpes virus……bull's eye lesions……mouth, airway, esophagus, urethra, and conjunctiva may be involved.
impetigo
superficial lesion caused by coag + Staph
osteoporosis
bone tissue is normally mineralized but the mass (density) of bone is decreased and the structural interity of trabcular bone is impaired…..patho: bone reabsorption (destruction)n and bone formation is disrupted
What happens when a bone is fractured?
the periosteum and blood vessels in the cortex, marrow and surrounding soft tissues are disrupted
myoglobinuria (Rhabdomyolysis)
muscle trauma, myoglobin is released from damaged sarcolemma, compartment- less severe, crush- most severe, increase pressure leads to decreased muscle infarction and then to crush syndrome decrease pressure leads to tamponade then to edema
strain
a tear in a tendon
sprain
a ligament tear
osteomalacia
characterize by inadequate and delayed mineralization of osteoid in mature compact songy bone…….mineral calcification and deposition doesn’t occur…..volume unchanged but bone consists of soft osteoid instead of rigid bone
Osteoarthritis
disorder of synovial joints, characterized by local areas of loss and damage of articular cartilage, new bone formation of joint margines (osteophytosis) subchondral bone changes, thickening of joint capsule
rheumatoid arthritis
systemic, inflammatory autoimmune disease associated with swelling and pain in multiple joints
osteosarcoma
most common malignant bone forming tumor…..male/female 2:1 60% of people younger than 20……pain and swelling
fibromyalgia
chronic musculoskeletal syndrome…..charachterized by diffuse pain, fatigue and tender points
gout
uric acid metabolism defects….when uric acid reaches a certain concentration in fluids, it crystalized. Those insoluble preipitates are deposited in connective tissues throughout the body…….ex. Hyperuricemia
osteomyelitis
bone infection caused by bacteria…..treatment: antibiotics and debridement with bone biopsy
impacted fracture
fracure with one end wedged into opposite end of inside fractured fragment
pathologic fracture
transverse, oblique or a spinal fracture of a bone weakened by tumor pressure or presence
transchondral fracture
consists of fragmentation and separation of a portion of the articular cartilage that covers the end of a bone at a joint
who is at risk for keloid
10 to 30 develop more commonly…..a familial tendency for keloid formation has been found
cell differentiation
the process by which cells mature and become specialized to perform specific functions
proliferation
the growth and production of cells
oncogenes
are mutant genes that in their normal non-mutant state direct synthesis of proteins that positively regulate (accelerate) proliferation
tumor suppressor genes
enconde proteins that in their normal state, negatively regulate proliferation (put the brakes on)
oncogenes vs. tumor suppressors
onco: gene products that normally promote growth (ie proto-oncogensis), activated by overexpression, increased copy number or gain of function mutations tumor suppressors: genes and proteins that normally inhibit growth or protect the genome....inactivated by loss of function mutation, loss of heterzygosity
(Cancer) promotion
characterized by reversible prolieration of altered cells……….activities of promotion are reversible (obesity, smoking, alcohol)…..1/2 of cancer related deaths in US are r/t tobacco use, unhealthy diet, obesity and physical inactivity
cancer progression
characterized by increased growth rate of tumor, invasiveness, metastasis: process begins with rapid growth of primary tumor….develops own blood supply, angiogenesis, segments of primary tumor can detach and invade surrounding tissues
common sites of cancers metastasize
lungs, brain, bone, liver, and adrenal glands
tumor markers (biologic markers)
are sustances produced by cancer cells that are found on tumor plasma membranes or in the blood, spinal fluid and urine
examples of tumor markers
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), on cancer cells of GI tract…..normal cells (Fetal gut, liver, pancreas)….alpha fetoprotein (AFP)……malignant liver cells and fetal liver……CA125 (ovarian carcinoma)…..CA19-9(pancreatic and gallbladder CA) Prostrate specific antigen (PSA)
types of cancer
epithelial carcinoma, adenocarcinoma (ductal or glandular epithelium), sarcoma (connective tissue), lymphoma (lymphatic tissue), leukemia (blood forming cells)
anaplasia
without form
pleomorphic
amplastic cells are variable size and shape
osteoblasts
bone building cells, produce type I collagen, synthesize osteoid(non-mineralized bone matrix) clacification - deposition of calcium salts
osteoclasts
bone chewing cells, major reabsorptive cell of bvone, large, phagocytic cells, contain lysosomes filled with hydrolytic enzymes
osteocytes
transformed osteoblast that is surrounded in soteoid as it hardens, they synthesize matrix molecules for bone calcification
bone remodeling
3 phases : activation of remodeling cylce, reabsorption osteoclasts resorb bone, formation of new bone
bone repair
5 stages of bone healing inflammation/hematoma formation, procallus formation, callus formation, replacement of the callus with lamellar or trabecular bone, remoding the periosteal and endosteal surfaces to size/shape of bone before injury
joints
provide mobility and stability synovial-knee
type I muscles fibers
red muscle, slow twitch, aerobic oxidative
type II muscle fibers
white muscle, fast twitch, anaerobic glycolytic
contraction
ATP- required and phoshpcreatine…..calcium
Isometric
same length, changing tension "satic"
Isotonic
same tension, changing length, eccentric:muscle lengthens………concentric:muscle shortens
treating fractures
reduction: realigning fragments…..immobilization: holding in place…….closed manipulation:no open skin, aligned…….traction:weights to pull hold in…..open manipulation:surgical, open skin applies screws….etc…