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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the sequence of structures through which urine passes as it leaves the body
1) minor calyx
2) major calyx
3) renal pelvis
4) ureter
5) urinary bladder
6) urethra
the functional unit of the human kidney is
one feature of the renal blood circulation that makes it unique is that:
there are 2 sets of capillaries
What condition has the opposite effect on urine production?
decreased solutes in blood
a relatively high BP in the glomerulus of the kideney is maintained because:
the afferent arteriole is larger than the efferent arteriole
the capillaries of the glomerulus differ from other capillary networks in the body becuase they:
branch from and drain into arterioles
What are the functions of the kidney?
1) water volume control
2) blood pressure control
3) conversion of vit. D to an active form
Is urine storage one of the functions of the kidney?
potassium is secreted and reabsorbed by:
proximal convulted tubule
the primary receptors sensitive to the oncotic pressure of blood are found in the:
water reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate initially enters:
vasa recta
plasma contains a much greater concentration of ____ than the glomerular filtrate
an increase in water permeability of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting duct is due to:
an increase in the production of ADH
the descending loop of the nephron allows:
sodium diffusion inward
Which pressures affect net glomerular filtration?
blood hydrostatic opposes capsular hydrostatic and blood oncotic
tubular secretion is accomplished in the:
distal convoluted tubule
tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion deffer in that:
1) secretion adds material to the filtrate
2) reabsorption removes materials from the filtrate
the kideneys eliminate
H, NH4+
if a small person excretes about 1L of urine during a 24 hr period, estimate the total amount of glomerular filtrate formed
100 L (???)
What should not appear in the glomerular filtrate (in any significant quantity) just after the process of glomerular filtration has been accomplished?
loop of Henle is to vasa recta as convoluted tubules are to the:
peritubular capillaries
the 2 "currents" used in the countercurrent exchange system are the:
ascending and descending limbs
the countercurrent exchange system
facilitates osmosis
a waste product of protein metabolism is:
glomerular filtration
is the fisrt step in urine formation
tubular reabsorption
1) retains substances that are needed by the body (water, glucose, Na, K, HCO3)
2) removes materials from the filtrate and returns them to the blood
tubular secretion
1) excretes chemicals that are not needed by the body (H, some AAs, urea, creatinine, some drugs)
2) adds material to the filtrate from the blood
the digestive functions performed by the saliva and salivary amylase are:
lubrication and carbohydrate digestion
during nervous control of gastric secretion, the gastric glands secrete before food enters the stomach. This stimulus to the glands comes from:
parasympathetic impulses over the vagus nerve
1) must be activated by HCl
2) is secreted by the chief cells
3) is important in the breakdown of proteins
beginning at the lumen, the sequence of layers of the GI tract is:
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
normally, when chyme leaves the stomach:
the proteins have been partly digested
which layer of the small intestine includes microvilli?
Is conversion of protein molecules into AAs a type of mechanical digestion?
mechanical digestion
1) chewing
2) churning and mixing of food in the stomach
3) peristalsis and mastication
pancreatic juice is to trypsin as gastric juice is to:
Which part of the small intestine is most distal from the pylorus?
among the structural features of the small intestine are villi, microvilli, and circular folds. Their function is to:
increase the surface area for absorption
teh fate of carbohydrates in the small intestine is:
digestion by amylase, sucrase, maltase, and lactase to monosaccharide
the absorptive fate of the end products of digestion may be summarized as:
AAs and monosaccharides are absorbed into blood capillaries; most fatty acids are absorbed into lymph
a lobule of the liver contains a centrally located:
vein, with radiating hepatocytes and sinusoids
an obstraction of the common bile duct would cause the blockage of bile comming from:
both the liver and the gallbladder
the human adult liver does not:
produce erythrocytes
1) store glycogen
2) convert ammonia to urea
3) produce blood coagulation proteins
the chyme that enters the large intestine is converted to feces by activity of:
bacteria and water reabsorption
the diaphysis is the:
shaft of a long bone
motor unit includes
1) muscle fibers
2) motor nerve axons
3) anterior horn cell
4) lower motor neuron
the perimysium is to a fasciculus as the:
periosteum is to a bone
What protein is found in the thick myofilaments?
an important function of the transverse tubule is to:
carry the electrical action potential deeper into the muscle fiber
the ion necessary for coupling is:
the strength of muscle contraction depends on the:
1) extent of the load
2) initial length of muscle fibers
3) recruitment of additional motor units
4) nerve innervation ratios
attempting to push an object that is too heavy to move is an example of which kind of contraction?
stacks of myofilaments; unit of contraction
membrane that covers the muscle fiber
sarcoplasmic reticulum
calcium transport system
Volkmann canals
contains blood vessels
irregular meshwork
concentric rings