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87 Cards in this Set

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The condition of the body related to the avialability and use of nutrients.
Nutritional Status
Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1˚C.
calorie (gram calorie)
Amount of heat needed to raise 1kg of water 1˚C.
Kilocalorie (large calorie)
The oxidation of proteins and carbohydrates yields how many calories?
4 kcal/g
The oxidation of fats yields how many calories?
9 kcal/g
The organized process through which nutrients are broken down, transformed or otherwise converted into cellular energy.
metabolism
Cells located everywhere in the body; responsible for uptake, synthesis, storage and mobilization of lipids. Stores 90% of body energy.
Adipocytes
These cells are fully differentiated (immature cells may divide postnatally), have a long life span, and vary in number among individuals.
Adipocytes
The lipid content of fat cells; contain no water; 3 molecules of fatty acid estericied to a glycerol molecule.
Trigycerides
Fat cells synthesize these cells from dietary fats and carbohydrates.
trigylcerides
This macromolecule is ingested in the diet, transported from the GI tract--> through the portal vein --> and to the liver before it gains access to the circulatory system.
Glucose
1. converted to fatty acids and stored in fat cells as trigylcerides
2. stored in the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen
Ways that excess glucose is stored.
The breakdown of glycogen. Controlled by glucagon from the liver and epinephrine in muscle tissue.
Glycogenolysis
glucose absorbed from gut --> transported in portal circulation to --> liver (stored as glycogen/synthesized through gluconeogenesis) --> released into blood --> goes to 1.CNS(consumed), 2.skeletal muscle (consumed or stored as glycogen), 3.adipose tissue (stored as triglycerides)
Regulation of blood glucose by the liver
Synthesis of glucose by the liver from amino acids, lactate, and glycerol. This glucose is either stored in the liver as glycogen or released into circulation.
Glucogenesis (gluconeogenesis)
What are the hormones that stimulate gluconeogenesis?
glucagon
glucocorticoids from adrenal cortex
thyroid hormone
Phase of metabolic storage and synthesis of cell consituents. It requires energy.
Anabolism
Breakdown of complex molecules into substances that can be used in the production of energy.
Catabolism
Why do humans require energy metabolism?
Because humans cannot store energy in the form of heat. Metabolism allows cellular energy to be stored, then used by the body, and replenished.
triglycerides with a complete lack of water
anhydrous triglycerides
Why do people lose weight quicker in the beginning of a fast/diet?
Hydrous glycogen is burned first during rapid weight loss and a body loses water, which weighs alot. After a while the body converts to fat metabolism and slower weight loss since these molecules do not contain water ( makes them lighter).
When lipases break triglycerides into 3 fatty acids and a glycerol.
Fat catabolism
These cause acidosis when present in large amounts.
Ketones (ketoacidosis)
Essential for the formation of all body structures - genes, enzymes, contractile structures in muscle, matrix of bone, hemoglobin, antibody function, fluid and electrolyte balance, nutrient transport.
Proteins
The building blocks of proteins.
Amino Acids
What happens to amino acids in excess of need for protein synthesis?
They are converted to fatty acids, ketones, or glucose and are stored or used as metabolic fuel.
Can fatty acids be converted to glucose?
No - the body must break down amino acids to generate glucose if enough is not supplied by food intake.
Breakdown of proteins to amino acids occurs primarily where?
Liver
What are the 4 categories of energy expenditure in the human body?
1.basal metabolic rate (resting energy equivalent)
2.diet-induced thermogenesis
3.exercise-induced thermogenesis
4.thermogenesis in response to changes in environmental conditions
Chemical reactions occuring when body is at rest; necessary for maintaining normal body temp., cardiovascular and respiratory function, muscle tone, and other essential activities of tissues and cells in the resting body.
50-70% of energy requirement
measure of exygen consumption at rest
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) or Resting Energy Equivalent
The energy used by the body for the digestion, absorption, and assimilation of food after its ingestion.
Accounts for 10% of total calories expended.
Diet-induced thermogenesis
Amount of energy expended for physical activity. Determined by type of activity performed, duration, and person's weight and physical fitness.
Energy-induced thermogenesis
This factor of exercise is a more significant aid to weight loss and maintenanc of weight loss.
Duration not intensity.

Institute of Medicine recommends:
60 min of exercise/5X per week
When are energy requirements greater?
during growth periods: at birth, adolescence, pregnancy & breast feeding.
This disease is caused by lack of protein. "disease suffered by displaced child"
Edema, desquamating skin, enlarged abdomen, discolored hair, anorexia, apathy, skin lesions, enlarged liver, low CO, tachycardia.
Kwashiorkor
Composed primarily of triglycerides
can be: saturated (raises blood cholesterol), unsaturated & polyunsaturated (lowers blood cholesterol).
They provide energy, function as carriers for fat-soluble vitamins, precursors of prostaglandins, and a source of fatty acids.
Fats
Lack of linoleic acid can cause this.
Dermatitis
Composed of simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, and undigested carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates
Lack of this results in loss of tissue proteins and the development of ketosis.
Carbohydrates
Group of organic compounds that act as catalysts; part of the enzyme systems required for the release of energy from protein, carbs, and fat. Also necessary for formation of RBCs, hormones, genetic materials, and the nervous system. 2 types - fat soluble and nonfat soluble. A deficiency of one of these will cause disease.
Vitamins
Compounds involved in acid-base balance and the maintenance of osmotic pressure. They are components of vitamins, hormones and enzymes. 2 kinds - macrominerals (present in large amounts) & trace minerals (small amounts).
Minerals
Undigestible portion of food. Increase stool bulk, binds with cholesterol and prevents absorption, lowers blood glucose.
Fiber
These measurements provide a means for assessing body composition, especially fat stores and skeletal muscle mass. Measure ht, wt, body circumference, and thickness of skinfolds.
Anthropometric measurements
A measurement of excess body fat.

weight in kg / (height in meters)squared
Body Mass Index (BMI)
A BMI of 30+

-coincides with lower incomes, minorities, less education
-increased risk factor for disease
obese
A BMI of 25 - 30

55% of the US population and increasing
risk factor for many diseases including obesity
overweight
BMI under 18.5
underweight
BMI of 18.5 - 25

lowest statistical health risk
normal
What causes obesity?
Consuming more calories than can be burned.
genotype
physiology
metabolism
environmental
Factors contributing to obesity
Determined by distribution of fat.
circumference of waist/circumference of hips
women:>0.8 men:>1.0
associated with aging, alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and increased weight
risk factor for: ischemic heart disease, stroke, death, cancer, hypertension, etc.
Upper Body Obesity
aka central, abdominal, male
Peripheral, gluteal-femoral, female
not associated with CV disease
varicose veins, mobility issues
Lower Body Obesity
This is the second leading cause of preventable death.
Obesity as a disease.
children
adolescents
25-50 years
menopause
1st year after weight loss

(genetic factor is moderate)
Targets for prevention of Obesity
dietary therapy
increase physical activity
behavior therapy
lifestyle modifications for Tx of obesity
weight
risk factors
motivation
previous history weight management
time & abilities
Assessment for Obesity
1. prevent additional weight gain
2. reduction in current weight
3. maintain the weight loss long-term
Goals for Tx of obesity
to decrease apetite
focus of pharmacotherapy for Tx of obesity
This does NOT necessarily effect:
metabolic chemistry
central obesity
CV risk factors
future amounts of weight loss
Weight Cycling
Primary: lack of nutrition intake
Secondary: to disease that affects nutrition utilization
Malnutrition or Starvation
protein calorie malnutrition; leads to loss of muscle and fat.
Emaciated, hair loss and dull, low HR, low BP, low temp., wasted appearance, stunted growth
Marasmus
leads to decreased body size, edema, wasting of organ mass (advanced)
Marasmus - Kwashiorkor
lack of food intake
starvation
What is the order of sources for glucose?
1.Blood
2.Liver
3.Muscles
trauma
sepsis
cancer
HIV-AIDs
IBD

protein loss due to body favoring catabolism over anabolism
Illnesses that trigger malnutrition and wasting
Increase fluid, electrolytes, calories, proteins, vitamins, minerals, but slowly to avoid strain on CV, kidneys, etc.
Tx for Malnutrition
Willful modification of food intake (restrict and binge).
Eating Disorders
weight preoccupation
excessive self-evaluation of weight/shape
psychological aspects of eating disorders
Lack of appetite with psychological basis.
- refuse to maintain a minimal weight for body
- intense fear of weight gain or fat
- disturbed perception of body size, shape, weight
- amenorrhea in female
mostly occurs in females
5-15% of males
Anoexia Nervosa
amenorrhea
loss of secondary sex characteristics
bone loss at 6 months
constipation
cold-intolerance
bradycardia
hypotension
decrease heart size
ECG changes
electrolyte imbalance
skin with fine hair
common symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa
Risk of death when body drops to 35-40% of normal body weight
Death caused by heart muscle degeneration and heart failure
Death from Anorexia Nervosa
at least 3 of the following:
eat rapidly
eat until uncomfortably full
eat large quantities when not hungry
eat alone due to embarassment
negative feelings are associated
NOT accompanied by purging or other compensatory behaviors
For diagnosis of Binge Eating
recurrent binge eating
compensatory behaviors after the binge
self-evaluation of body/shape/weight
women>men
Bulemia Nervosa
dental disorders
electrolytes
upper GI problems
aspiration pneumonia
weight fluctuations
emotional problems
complications of bulemia nervosa
people are more accepting of Tx because they are upset by the behavior
Bulemia Nervosa
These are catecholamines and are major hormones secreted in sympathetic response to stressors.
epinphrine and norepinephrine
What secretes epinephrine?
adrenal medulla
What secretes norepinephrine?
sympathetic nerve endings
What is characteristic of the sympathetic nervous system response?
increase in heart rate, airway diameter, blood glucose levels, and muscle tension
What are 5 endocrine glands related to the stress reaction?
pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, and pancreas
What secretes corticotropin releasing hormone?
hypothalamus
What does corticotropin releasing hormone stimulate?
anterior pituitary
What does the anterior pituitary release when stimulated?
ACTH - adrenal corticotropic hormone
TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone
and others
What does the posterior pituitary release?
ADH - antidiuretic hormone
What does the pancreas secrete?
Alpha cells - glucagon
Beta cells - insulin
What does the adrenal medulla secrete?
epinephrine, norepinephrine
What does the adrenal cortex secrete?
aldosterone
cortisol