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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what glycopeptide treats MRSE?
vancomycin
what are the side effects of aminoglycasides?
nephrotoxicity
ototoxicity
substantial, unintentional weight loss, N/V, cervical lymph, spleenomegaly, decreased appetite in a patient with Hodgkin's disease are considered to be what type of symptoms?
Constitutional symptoms
what is the most common opportunistic infection?
PCP
what two general categories of anti-microbial tx make up the betalactam's?
penicillins and cephalosporins
enzymes produced by various microbes that destroy the betalactam antimicrobial agents are?
betalactamase inhibitors
what are ESBL?
extended spectrum betalactamase drugs
what are some examples of ESBL's?
AUGMENTIN
Unasyn
what is the MOA of cephalosporins?
to disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
what is the MOA of penicillins?
to disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan later of bacterial cell walls
what drug/class is used to treat H.FLU?
Ceftin
a 2nd generation cephalosporin
what are 4 examples of 1st gen cephalosporins?
Keflex
cefazolin
Velosef
Duricef
which drug is given as prophylaxsis for surgery that will cover Gram +/- organisms?
cefazolin 1-2g IV
1st generation cephalosporin
what are 3 examples of a 2nd generation cephalosporin?
cefzil
ceftin
cefamandole
give 3 examples of a 3rd generation cephalosporin?
Rocephin
cefizax
cefodizime
what is the gold standard penicillin?
Penicillin G: benzylpenicillin
what is penicillin G used to treat commonly?
cellulitis
meningitis
syphilis
septicemia
the "orchestrators" of the immune response; in charge of all cell-mediated immunity?
t-cells
the "on switch" or the up regulators of the T-cells?
T helper cells= CD-4
what are two representitive examples of opportunisitic infections?
HIV
EBV
what are two general ways to classify someone with AIDS?
1. they have one or more opportunistic infections
2. CD4 count < 200
MC opportunistic infection?
PCP
what are 3 infections that occur in/as opportunistic infections with immunocompromised patients?
toxoplasmosis
esophageal candidiasis
TB
how is toxoplasmosis usually treated?
SULFA drugs
patient presents with stroke-like symptoms. after exam you are convinced this is what has occurred. you get the CT scan back and you see ring enhancing lesions. what is your dx?
toxoplasmosis
a patient refuses to take anti-retroviral treatment. what is a good alternative for them?
TMP/SMX
(bactrim/septra)
what is the MOA for tetracyclines?
they interfere with protein synthesis via ribosomes
upon exam of a child who has been refusing to eat (according to his mother) appears anxious, is drooling and is febrile. what is your dx and how would you treat?
epiglotitis. tx ceftin (2nd gen cephlosporin good for H.flu)
what bacteria causes bullous meningitis in the ear?
mycoplasma
what is the MC organism for viral infections?
rhinovirus
what are the 3 organisms associated with otitis media?
Moraxcella catarrhalis
H.Flu
Streptococcus
what two drugs make up AUGMENTIN?
amoxicillin and clavulanic acid
what two drugs make up UNASYN?
ampicillin + sulbactam
name 3rd generation cephalosporin (3)
rocephin
cefasolin
what are 4 examples of microcytic anemias?
LITS:
Lead poisoning
iron deficiency
thalassemia minor
sideroblastic anemia
give two examples of hemoglobinopathies
thallasemias
sickle cell
give examples of normalcytic anemias
anemia of chronic disease
endocrinopathies
uremia
aplastic anemia
what are cytokines?
inflammatory mediators
CFU's
colony stimulating factors= cytokines=progenitor cells that stimulate maturation
which drug is used to treat malaria and is also an antiarrhythmic?
quinine and quinidine
where does asa work?
at the cyclooxygenase pathway inhibiting the production of txa2. irreversible.
what is the MC cause of impaired platelet function?
NSAIDS/ASA
typical sign of hemophilia A/B?
haemarthrosis
name the 3 types of immune modulating drugs (suppressive) that were mentioned in stringer's handout?
tacrolimus
methotrexate
cyclophosphamide
what components make up the innate immunity?
neutrophils
macrophages
eos
basos
complement (not a cell)
what are some examples of the immune defenses our body has to defend us from opportunistic infections?
anatomic barriers (skin etc)
humoral or antibody related
cell mediated: t cells
complement system
innate immunity
nutrition
age
what are some examples of diseases that compromise a host?
congenital immunodeficiencies
primary/inherited disorders
-SCIDS
-DiGeorge syndrome
-Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
the following symptoms are grouped together to be indicitive of what syndrome:
hypoparathyroidism = hypocalcemia
hypoplastic thymus or
absent thymus,
conotruncal heart defects (e.g., tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defects, vascular rings)
cleft lip and/or palate
DiGeorge syndrome
what does SCIDS stand for?
severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome
the main symptom for this disease is immunoglobulin M (IgM) deficiency; additionally causes persistent thrombocytopenia and, in its complete form, also causes small platelets, atopy, cellular and humoral immunodeficiency, and an increased risk of autoimmune disease and hematologic malignancy
WAS: wiskott-aldrich syndrome
what are some examples of secondary or acquired disorders that can compromise the host?
DM
malnutrition
HIV
sarcoidosis
hodgkin's
uremia
major burns
CLL
nephrotic syndrome
sickle cell anemia
what are the 5 main types of opportunistic organisms?
Bacteria
Fungal
Protozoan
Viral
Helminths
where are some common sites on the body for opportunistic infections to strike?
catheter-related bacteremias
UTI's
sinusitis
peri-rectal anscesses
pneumonias
what is the MOA for corticosteroids?
inhibit lymphocyte proliferation and cell-mediated responses.
inhibit the synthesis of inflamm mediators.
what are some examples of inflammatory mediators?
prostaglandins
leukotrienes
what is the most commonly used corticosteroid?
Prednisone
what is an example of a cytotoxic drug?
MOPP
cyclophosphamide
Nitrogen mustard (mustargen)
cytoxan
Procarbazine
what is the MOA of cytotoxic drugs?
interfere with cell replication by cross-linking DNA strands
what are antimetabolites?
a class of cytotoxic drugs
what are some examples of antimetabolites?
methrotrexate
azathioprine
mercaptopurine
fluorouracil
what is the MOA of methrotrexate?
to inhibit the function of T-cells by blocking cell folic acid synthesis
what is the MOA of azathioprine and mercaptopurine?
to interfere with the nucleic acids of purine synthesis that are ultimately metabolized into uric acid
what is an example of a typical granulomatous infection?
TB
where are macrophages typically found?
in the tissues
what is a broad example of an intracellular pathogen?
virus; they perpetuate themselves on being engulfed by phagocytic cells and thereby fascilitate their own replication
what is the role of chemical mediators?
to produce the signs and symptoms of inflammation
what are some examples of chemical mediators?
histamine/prostaglandins/leukotrienes/PAF
-complement fragments/cytokine
-plasma proteases that activate complement/clotting system components
-reactive molecules
which chemical mediator is responsible for swelling, redness and warmth: vasodilation and increased capillary permeability?
histamine, prostaglandin, leukotrienes, bradykinin, PAF
which chemical mediator is responsible for tissue damage
lysosomal enzymes and products released from neutrophils, macrophages and other inflamm cells
which chemical mediators are responsible for pain?
bradykinin
prostaglandin
which chemical mediators are responsible for fever?
IL-1
IL-6
TNF
which chemical mediators are responsible for leukocytosis?
IL-1 and other cytokines
the response of body tissue to immune reactions, injury or ischemic damage?
inflammation or the inflammatory response
what are the cardinal signs of inflammation?
RUBOR
TUMOR
CALOR
DOLOR
what are the two major components of the acute inflammation process?
vascular and cellular stages
what are the two types of leukocytes to participate in the acute inflammatory response?
granulocytes and monocytes
what purpose do the granules of the basophils serve?
they contain histamine and other bioactive mediators of inflammation
a cell that is similar to the basophil and is widely distributed in connective tissues throughout the body; mostly mucosal surfaces?
mast cell
what are the sequence of events in the cellular response to inflammation by the leuokocyte?
1.margination
2. emigration
4.chemotaxis
3.phagocytosis
this is one of the first mediators of an inflammatory response, causes dilation and increased permeability of capillaries?
histamine
the kinins, activated complement proteins and clotting factors make up what inflamm mediators?
plasma proteases
this "kinin" causes increased capillary permeability and pain
bradykinin
what are the 3 major contributions that the complement fragments contribute to the inflamm. response?
1. cause vasodilation, icnrease vascular perm
2.promote leukocyte activation, adhesion and chemotaxis
3.augement phagocytosis
leukotrienes: an inflamm mediator, follows which pathway for synthesis?
lipoxygenase pathway
prostaglandins, an inflammatory mediator, follows which pathway for synthesis?
cyclooxygenase pathway
what is TxA2?
thromboxane A2: a prostaglandin that promotes platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction
which pathway is thromboxane A2 synthesized from?
cyclooxygenase pathway
ASA and NSAID's reduce inflammation by inactivating the first enzyme in which pathway
cyclooxygenase pathway for prostaglandin synthesis
which type of cells are characteristic/indicitive of a chronic inflammation
macrophages and lymphocytes + fibroblasts
what are some environmental causes for chronic infection/inflammation
foreign bodies: talc, asbestos, silica, surgical sutre material
what are some examples of virus' that provoke chronic inflammatory responses?
TB
treponema of syphillis
actinomyces
what are the two patterns of chronic inflammation?
1. non-specific
2. granulomatous
these modified macrophages resemble epithelial cells and sometimes are called epithelioid cells, and represent a distinctive form of chronic inflamm?
granulomatous lesions
what are some examples of poorly digested agents that must be removed by granulomatous inflammation?
splinters
sutures
silica
asbestos
TB
syphillis
sarcoidosis
deep fungal infections
brucellosis
what type of hypersensitivity reaction is IgG or IgM + complement?
type III
what are 2 representative examples of a TYPE III hypersensitivity reaction that present with an arthrous reaction?
RA
SLE
antibody mediated reactions are which type of hypersensitivy reactions?
Type II
what is an example of a type IV hypersensitivity reaction?
PPD: a delayed sensitivity reaction
what are 4 representative examples of VIRUS'?
herpes
hepatitis
h.influenza
adenovirus
what are 2 examples of a protozoan infection?
trichomoniasis: anaerobic, parasitic flagellated protozoan
Malaria: Plasmodium falciparum
what are some representative examples of FUNGI?
candidiasis
aspergillus
cryptococcus
ringworm-> a dermophite
what are some representative examples of gram (-) organisms?
pseudomonas
klebsiella
legionella (not enteric)
proteus
E.coli
shigella
treponema pallida
erylichia
what are some representive examples of gram (+) organisms?
staph
strep
listeria
b.cereus
corynebacterium
what are some examples of poorly digested agents that must be removed by granulomatous inflammation?
splinters
sutures
silica
asbestos
TB
syphillis
sarcoidosis
deep fungal infections
brucellosis
what type of hypersensitivity reaction is IgG or IgM + complement?
type III
what are 2 representative examples of a TYPE III hypersensitivity reaction that present with an arthrous reaction?
RA
SLE
antibody mediated reactions are which type of hypersensitivy reactions?
Type II
what is an example of a type IV hypersensitivity reaction?
PPD: a delayed sensitivity reaction
what are 3 representative examples of a generalized/systemic inflammatory reaction?
LUPUS: autoimmune & systemic
RA: systemic + arthritis
SIRS: autoimmue & systemic
give 3 representitive examples of localized inflamm disorders and the region they affect?
IBD: GI
asthma: hyper reactive airway disease;intrinsic o extrinsic
INTERSTITIAL lung dz: hypersensitivity to an environ. agent
what is bagassosis?
a hypersensitiviey pneumonitis due to inhalation of residue of cane in sugar fields