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64 Cards in this Set

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what are the 3 functions tested in the glascow coma scale?
eye opening
verbal response
motor response
flexion in response to pain
extention in response to pain
this assesses the function of the cerebral cortex and brainstem, through the patient's verbal, motor and eye opening responses to specific stimuli
glascow coma scale
this system originates in the motor cortex and is responsible for delicate muscle mvmt
pyramidal motor system
this system originates in the basal ganglia and is responsible for crude touch and supportive movement
extrapyramidal sys.
this functional group exerts control over the LMN's and they project from the motor strip in the cerebral cortex to the ventral horn and are fully contained within the CNS
upper motor neurons
a classification of skeletal muscle: this type of contractile protein requires many mitochondria, and depends on blood borne o2 for energy, and are typically slow to fatigue
slow twitch fibers
a classification of skeletal muscle: this type of contractile protein depends on muscle glycogen storage that can be rapidly depleted
fast twitch fibers
in the posterior frontal lobe, this structure iniates and controls delicate, skillful and intentional mvmt of distal/flexors of limbs & speech aparatus
the motor cortex
where does the motor cortex receive info from?
the thalamus, somatosensory cortex, and indirectly the cerebellum & basal ganglia
what are the different areas of the motor cortex?
motor strip
premotor cortex
supplementary motor cortex
the normal tension in a muscle as evidenced by the resistance to passive movement around a joint
muscle tone
loss of movement
weakness. incomplete loss of muscle function
what areas can be affected by a UMN lesion
motor cortex, internal capsule, and areas that corticospinal/bulbar tract descend
if a lesion is at or above the level of the pyramids, what side of the body is affected by paralysis?
the opposite side
UMN damage at or above L1?
immediate, profound weakness
loss of fine, skilled, voluntary lower limb mvmt.
reduced bowel/bladder control
diminished sexual funct.
exagg. of muscle tone
UMN damage above c5?
upper limb mvmt. is affected
rhythmic contraction and alternate relaxation of a limb that is caused by sudden stretching of a muscle and gently maintaining the stretched muscle
what is another name for peripheral nerve injuries?
lower motorneuron lesions
what will a peripheral nerve injury to C7 lead to?
LMN hand weakness
what will an injury to or below T12 cause?
LMN injury and flaccid paralysis
name the structures in the brain that are involved in motor function
neuromuscular unit
spinal cord circuitry
brain stem neurons
basal ganglia
motor cortex
a primary disorder of muscle tissue, characterized by a defect in the muscle fibers
a group of genetic disorders with progressive deterioration of skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy, atrophy, necrosis
muscular dystrophy
what is the MC form of muscular dystrophy in adults
an autoimmune disease that effects communication between the motorneuron and the innervated muscle cell at the NMJ
myasthenia gravis
what is the MC affected area in a p with myasthenia gravis
periorbital muscles
what cells in the PNS produce myelin sheath
schwann cells
caused by localized conditions, such as trauma, compression, infections that affect a single spinal nerve, plexus or peripheral nerve trunk
what are some causes of mononeuropathies?
fractured bones, tight tourniquette, herpes zoster,carpal tunnel
compression of the median nerve as it travels down the flexor tendons through a canal made by carpal bones
carpal tunnel
what are two physical tests you can use to diagnose Carpal TUnnel syndrome?
phalan's, tinnel's
this disorder involves demylination or axonal degeneration of multiple peripheral nerves, which leads to symmetric sensory, motor or mixed sensorimotor defecits
what are some manifestations of polyneuropathies if the ANS is involved?
postural hypotension, constipation, impotence
what are some examples of immune mechanisms that can cause/lead to polyneuropathies
toxic agents, lead, alcohol, metabolic
a subacute polyneuropathy that is caused by infiltration of mononuclear cells, which results in edema of endoneuril compartment and demylination of ventral spinal roots?
guillain barre syndrome
where is the MC area for herniation?
lower back: L4-S1
what structure of the brain is dopamine released from?
the substancia nigra
what is the name of the major input structure for the basal ganglia?
the neostriatum
where is the major OUTPUT structure for the basal ganglia?
globus pallidus
name the 4 functional pathways involving the basal ganglia
1.Dopamine pathway: from S. Nigra to the striatum
2.GABA: from striatum to globus pallidus/s. nigra
3.AcH secreting neurons: within the neostriatum
4.multiple general pathways from the brainstem: secrete norEpi, Serotonin, enkephalin
a movement disorder of the basal ganglia that features rigidity and bradykinesia; ex: Parkinson's
a movement disorder of the basal ganglia that causes excessive and uncontrolled motions
this is an area that contains the AcH neurons; it is thought that a lack of/degeneration of these neurons causes mental decline (in dementia, parkinson's, alz)
nucleus basalis of Meynert
what are the 3 main classes of cerebellar dysfunction?
-cerebellar ataxia
-cerebellar tremor
this disorder selectively affects motor function in 3 locations, but the entire sensory system and intellect remains intact?
an otherwise healthy patient presents with an acute episode of paresthesias , optic neuritis, diplopia...what is on your differential?
Multiple sclerosis
an electric like shock tingling down the back and onto the legs that is produced by flexion of the neck?
Lhermitte's Sign
what is the MC non-traumatic cause of neurologic disability
what is the most common cause of Spinal Cord Injury?
motor vehicle accident
an incomplete lesion of the spinal cord characterized by ipsilateral upper motor neuron paralysis and loss of proprioception with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation. A zone of partial preservation or segmental ipsilateral lower motor neuron weakness and analgesia may be noted
Brown-Sequard syndrome
what is the term for an enlargement of the CSF compartment caused by either decreased absorbtion of CSF or overproduction of CSF?
what is the most fragile portion of the neurocranium?
ethmoid cribiform plate
what 3 metabolic factors effect the cerebral blood flow?
CO2, O2, hydrogen ions
an ischemic band of minimally perfused cells that surround the central core of dead/dying cells during the evolution of an ischemic stroke
in a stroke: what is the artery that mc affects aphasia?
inability to comprehend, integrate and express language?
a disorder of speech/
this intracranial hemmorage typically occurs in young people due to a tear in an artery (usually middle meningeal) in association with a skull fx.
epidural hematoma
an infection of the paranchyma of the brain and spinal cord
most common cause of encephalitis?
herpes simplex
fever, chills, HA, nuchal rigidity, n/v, polymorpho-nuclear cells in peripheral smear of CSF is indicitive of?
bacterial meningitis