Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/46

Click to flip

46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the MC primary neoplasms of young children?
Wilms' tumor (i.e. nephroblastoma)
Which embryonic cell types does Wilms' Tumor stem from?
blastemic, stromal and epithelial (all 3)
Where does Wilms' tumor usually occur?
any part of the kidney. sharply demarcated and variably encapsulated.
What are the common presenting signs of Wilms' Tumor?
large asympotomatic abdominal mass, HTN. Often discovered inadvertantly. Sometimes presents w abdominal pain, vomiting.
what is the MC alterations in kidney form is an abnormality called?
horseshoe kidney
fluid filled sacs or segments of a dilated nephron?
renal cysts
what are the four basic types of renal cystic disease?
polycystic kidney dz, medullary sponge kidney, acquired cystic dz, simple kidney cysts
what is thought to be the cause of renal cystic dz?
tubular obstructions that increase intratubular pressure. or from changes in the basement membrane of the renal tubules.
what are other manifestations of ADPKD? (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease?)
hypertension, cardiovascular abnormalities, cerebral aneurysms, and cysts in other organs such as the liver, panreas and spleen.
name the conditions that cause urinary tract obstructions?
developmental defects, calculi, pregnancy, benign prostatic hyperplasia, scar tissue, tumors, neruologic disorders.
if you have an obstruction at the renal pelvis what two things could be causing it?
renal calculi, papillary necrosis
if there is a urinary tract obstruction in the ureter, what could be causing it?
renal calculi, pregnancy, tumors that compress the ureter, ureteral stricture, congenital disorders
what are some examples of tumors in the ureters that could constrict or cause a Urinary tract obstruction?
leiomyoma, ovarian carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma
if there is a urinary tract obstruction in the bladder and urethra, what are some causes of this?
bladder CA, neurogenic bladder, bladder stones, prostatic hyperplasia or CA, urethral strictures, congenital urethral defects.
what are the two most damaging effects of urinary obstruction?
1.stasis of urine (which predisposes to infection and stone formation)
2.development of backpressure (which interferes with renal blood flow and destroys kidney tissue)
what is the main urea-splitting organism that causes infection in the urinary tract?
Proteus, staphylococci that increase ammonia production and cause the urine to become alkaline.
what are the most common manifestations of urinary obstruction?
pain, s/s of UTI, manifestations of renal dysfunction (impaired ability to concentrate urine)
what is the most common cause of upper urinary tract obstruction?
urinary calculi
what are the top 3 MC disorders of the urinary tract?
UTI's, prostate disorders, Kidney stones
what are some of the components of kidney stones (and therefore the components of urine)
calcium salts, uric acid, Magnesium ammonium phosphate, cystine
what are the four basic types of kidney stones?
calcium stones, magnesium ammonium phosphate stones, uric acid stones, cystine stones.
with hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, what type of kidney stone are you most likely to have?
calcium (oxalate & phosphate)
immobilization, hyperparathyroidism, hyperoxaluria,and diffuse bone disease are contributing factors to what type of kidney stone?
calcium (oxalate & phosphate)
vitamin D intoxication, milk-alkali syndrome and renal tubular acidosis are contributing factors to what type of kidney stone?
calcium (oxalate & phosphate)
urinary tract infections is a contributing factor to what type of kidney stone?
magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite)
these types of stones are formed in acid urine with pH of approx 5.5 and crystals form and precipitate and form what type of kidney stone?
uric acid (urate)
gout and a diet high in purine contribute to what kind of kidney stone?
uric acid (urate)
cystinuria, an inherited disorder of amino acid metabolism contribute to what type of kidney stone?
cystine
what are the most common kidney stones?
calcium stones 70-80%
what is the second MC type of bacterial infection seen?
UTI's (respiratory tract infect= #1)
what is considered to be a lower UTI?
cystitis
what is considered to be an upper UTI?
pyelonephritis
MC cause of UTI?
E.Coli
what is considered to be a lower UTI?
cystitis
what is considered to be an upper UTI?
pyelonephritis
MC cause of UTI?
E.Coli
most UTI's ascend from the urethra and bladder. t/f
true
name the 3 layers of the glomerulus that constitute its' permeability.
1.endothelial cells lining capillary
2.basement membrane made up of a network of matrix proteins
3. epithelial layer forming outer surface of cap and bowman's
where blood is filtered and the urine filtrate is formed?
the glomeruli
what is the leading cause of chronic renal failure in the U.S.?
glomerulonephritis
what are the manifestations of glomerulonephritis?
hematuria with red cell casts, a diminished GFR, azotemia, oliguria, HTN.
what causes glomerulonephritis?
diseases that provoke a proliferative inflammatory response of the endothelial, mesangial or epi cells of the glomeruli
a syndrome caused by disorders that increase the permeability of the glomerular capillary membrane, causing a massive loss of protein in the urine?
The Nephrotic Syndrome
These syndromes are caused by diseases that produce proliferative inflammatory responses that decrease the permeability of the glomerular capillary membrane?
nephritic syndromes
what are the manifestations of the nephrotic syndrome?
massive proteinuria, lipiduria, associated hypoalbuminemia, generalized edema and hyperlipidemia
what are the most causative agents of pyelonephritis?
E.coli and Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Pseudomonas