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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Parts of the upper airway:
nasal cavity
paranasal sinuses
eustachian tube
Name the 4 nasal sinuses:
1. paranasal
2. ethmoid
3. sphenoid
4. maxillary
nasal cavity:
-filters, warms, humidifies air
-contains cilia inside cavity
eustachian tube:
-maintain pressure in the middle ear
-decompression tube for the middle ear
paranasal sinuses:
-warms air
-lightens skull
-does not protect the brain
Parts of the lower airway:
trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
-prevents aspiration
-mechanism for forceful cough
-narrowest part of the respiratory system
Who has a larger larynx - males or females?
-males have a larger larynx, causing a lower sound
-also the more pinched the larynx, the lower the sound
Why do we sneeze?
-reflex from irritants in the nose
-clears the pathway
2 sources of pulmonary circulation:
1. pulmonary arteries (air exchange)
2. bronchial arteries (nurish lung cells)
pressures of pulmonary circulation:
pressure 22-25/8-10
What are the mechanisms for lowering vascular resistance?
1. opening previously closed capillaries
2. distention of capillaries
Why must fluid content of lung tissue be controlled?
to prevent edema
-moving air into lungs
-a pulmonary function
dead space:
-no gas is exchanged
-located from nose to lungs
-alveolar is an unperfused area
-1/3 of each breath is wasted
Reason for an endotrachial tube:
to provide an airway
Quanitity of a normal breath of air:
500 ml
alveolar ventilation:
-difference btn tidal volume and anatomic dead space times repiratory rate
What are the 2 mechanisms of breathing?
volume and pressure
-mvmt of gas from high conc to low conc
-thickening of membrane, decrease in surface area reduces diffusion
-PaO2 decreases with age
Where does gas exchange take place?
capillary-alveolar membrane
diffusion process:
-O2 moves thru surfactant, to alveolar membrane, thru interstitial fluid, capillary-alveolar membrane, to plasma, to RBC membrane
Which is more diffusable - O2 or CO2?
CO2 is 20 times more diffusable than O2 bc it is more soluble
O2 transport:
-O2 transported mostly by Hb with small amount in plasma
-4O2--> one heme--> oxyhemoglobin
-normally 25% O2 unloaded in tissues at rest
CO2 transport:
-dissolved in plasma (5-10%)
-carried as bicarbonate (60-70%)
-carbaminohemoglobin (20-30%)
3 stages of the volume mechanism of breathing:
1. diaphragm breathing (500 ml, do not see)
2. exercise (diaphragm, intercostal muscles)
3. bad respiratory disease (diaphragm, interc muscles, accessory muscles)
Pressure mechanism of breathing:
-all pressure goes from high to low
-when pressure outside lungs is greater, air goes into lungs, vice versa
What is the atmospheric reading at sea level?
760 mmHg
4 causes of hypoxemia/hypoxia:
1. high altitude, hypoventilation airway obstruction (give O2)
2. anemia (decreases O2 carrying capacity)
3. reduced blood flow
4. toxicity (cyanide poisoning)
What is the purpose of nitrogen in the air?
-helps keep alveolar open
-part of the protein compound
How does blood flow thru the lungs change?
according to body positions
What is ventilation thru the lungs dependent upon?
1. when upright, ventilation is better in the lower lung fields
2. when supine or lateral, best in dependent part
What are the neural control centers of the brain?
medulla and pons
-regulates breathing
-influences the rate of breathing
-ex: rhythm on insp or expir
central chemoreceptors:
-in the medulla
-respond to changes in CO2 and pH
peripheral chemoreceptors:
-located in the aortic and carotid bodies
-maintains O2 concentration
Hering-Breuer reflex:
-stretch receptors (alveoli and bronchioles) used to prevent overstretching
-respond to body exercise (in muscles, tendons, joints)
-aortic and carotid sinuses respond to changes in BP
3 mechanics of breathing:
1. airway resistance
2. lung compliance
3. opposing lung forces
airway resistance:
-narrowing of airway for any reason
-highest to lowest is from nose to bronchioles
Where is the highest resistance in airway breathing?
from airflow in the nose
Where is the least resistance in airway breathing?
in bronchioles
lung compliance during breathing:
-det by lung expansibility, ease of inflation, chest wall expansibility, decrease in elastic fibers and other outside factors
What are some outside factors of lung compliance during breathing?
-obesity, spinal curvatures, abdominal distension
-this will inhibit the ability for the lung to comply
opposing lung forces during breathing:
-inspiration by muscles cause negative intrapleural pressure cause lungs to expand
-expiration mostly by relaxation of diaphragm (some elastic recoil)
2 classifications of respiratory disorders:
1. ventilatory failure
2. oxygenation failure
ventilatory failure:
-classification of resp disorder
-alveolar ventilation insufficient for gas exchange
-decreased O2, increased CO2
oxygenation failure:
-diffusion of gases impaired
-septal defects causing patent ductus
patent ductus:
-mixing of venous and arterial blood caused by septal defect