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50 Cards in this Set

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process whereby carrier proteins move or pump solutes across the membrane against an electrochemical gradient. Requires metabolic energy, which may be supplied by ATP hydrolysis or by an ion gradient.
Active Transport
Present in plasma membranes of virtually all animal cells. It serves to maintain low sodium and high potassium concentrations in the cell. Almost 1/3 of the energy of a typical cell is consumed.
Active Tansport Carrier; Sodium-Potassium Pump
Behaves as an enzyme in its ability to split ATP to form adenosine diphosphate (ADH) and inorganic phosphate.
Sodium-Potassium Pump
Transport is coupled. The transfer of one ion must be accompanied by the simultaneous transport of the other ion. The transporter moves three sodium ions out of the cell for every two potassium ions moved into the cell through active transport.
Sodium-Potassium Pump
Important in maintaining cell volume. Responsible for maintaining a steep concentration gradient for sodium across the plasma membrane. Digitalis is the inhibitor.
Sodium-Potassium Pump
rapid, self-propagating electrical excitations of the membrane that are mediated by ion channels that open and close in response to changes in voltage across the membrane. Triggered by membrane depolarization.
Action Potential
initiated by the opening of sodium channels in a section of membrane. Regenerated in adjacent sections of membrane as more sodium channels open.
Action Potential
Best understood form of cell communication; secreted molecules. Most are water soluble.
occurs when cells shrink and reduce their differentiated functions in response to a variety of normal and injurious factors. Represents an effort by the cell to minimize its energy and nutrient concumption by decreasing intracellular organelles and other structures.
inadequate blood supply to a tissue. Common sites: heart, brain, kidneys, and lower leg
Occurs as a consequence of ischemia or toxic injury and is characterized by cell ruptue, spilling of contents into the extracellular fluid and inflammation.
Occurs in response to injury that does not directly kill the cell but triggers intracellular cascades that activate a cell suicide response as tissues remodel. Generally do not rupture and are ingested by neighboring cells with minimal disruption of the tissue and without inflammation.
recognized as a primary factor in diseases such as heart failure. First, may be triggered by withdrawal of survival signals that normall suppress. Second, involves extracellular signals that bind to the cell and actively trigger the death cascade
interruption of blood flow to an area. most common cause of cell injury. Not only disrupts the oxygen supply, but also allows metabolic wastes to accumulate and deprives the cell of nutrients for glycolysis.
cellular damage occurs after the blood supply to the tissues has been restored, owing to the production of partially reduced oxygen molecules that damage cell membranes and trigger immune-mediated injury.
reperfusion injury
46 double stranded chains of nucleotides
consist of five carbon sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate group and one of the four nucleotide bases.
accomplished by ribosomes, which match the mRNA codon with the correct tRNA anticodon and then catalyze the peptide bond to link amino acids together into a linear protein.
protein synthesis
permanent change in DNA structure.
due to a mutation of the sex chromosomes. Almost all recessive.
example: hemophilia A; bleeding disorder
X-linked Disorders
chemical mediator;consists of about 20 plasma proteins that interact to enhance inflammation, chemotaxis, and lysis of target cells. synthesized in the liver and by macrophages and neutrophils.
activated by microbial antigens (alternative pathway) or by antigen-antibody complexes (classical pathway)
occur with both acute and chronic inflammation. can lead to systemic involvement. systemic responses include fever, lethargy, and muscle catabolism.
localized inflammation
cluster of genes on chromosome 6. contains three classes of genes: I, II, III. Class I and II code for proteins that display antigens on the surface of cells. III code for those imporant to inflammatory rxtns.
Major Histocompatibility Complex
primary role in enabling lymphocytes to react to foreign antigen while remaining tolerant to self antigen.
Major Histocompatibility Complex
normal immune response that is inappropriately triggered or excessive or produces undesirable effects on the body. a specific antigen-antibody rxn triggers. four types are involved. each type is characterized by a specific cellular or antibody response. Do not occur on first exposure to antigen. "allergy"
I,II,III are mediated by antibodies produced by B lymphocytes and IV mediated by T lymphocytes (cell-mediated).
conceptualized as circulating tumors that are disseminated from the beginning of the disease process and primarily involve the blood and bone marrow.classified as either acute or chronic.
localize in lymph tissues but is often disseminated to other sites at the time of diagnosis. Common finding: enlarged, nontender lymph nodes. classified as either Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin
result from transformation and proliferation of a precursor stem cell in bone marrow.
myeloid neoplasms
include malignant transformations of B cell, T cells and NK cells. when present in blood and bone marrow, its called leukemias and when localized in lymphoid tissues they are called lymphomas.
lymphoid neoplasms
RNA retrovirus; transmitted primarily through sexual transmission via semen and vaginal and cervical secretions
HIV Etiology
decrease of CD4 T helper/inducer lymphocytes, which are the cells needed for appropriate immune responsiveness. successfull due to the high level of virus replication and high level of CD4 cell death.
HIV Pathogenesis
flulike symptoms characterize early infection. early immune dysfunction follow ( fever, night sweats) Malnutrition or wasting is the most significant systemic symptom.
HIV Clinical Manifestations
the end stage of HIV infection; CD4 count<200 cells.
antiretroviral medications, triple therapy
membrane transport of small molecules
membrane transport of large molecules
endocytosis, exocytosis/ receptor-mediated endocytosis
no energy input required;moves according to electrochemical gradient;diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
passive transport
uses energy; moves against electrochemical gradient.if energy supply is low, it will be impaired.
active transport.
may be active or passive, may be coupled, bind, move and then release on other side.
carrier proteins
form a porelike structure in membrane, transport ions, passive only, opening/closing is gated.
channel proteins
2. glycolysis (anaerobic)2ATP for every 1 glucose
3.krebs cycle
4. oxidated phosphorilization
cellular metabolism
pain, swelling, warmth, redness
Local Inflammation
fever, leukocytosis, malaise
Systemic Inflammation
located on all nucleated cells
-continuously present intracellular antigens
-normal self antigens not recognized
-viral proteins or tumor proteins activate cytotoxic cells.
located on B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells
-present ingested foreign antigens.
increase in IP3, DAG and Ca
-cytokine production:"T cell help"
-IL-2 receptor production
-Avtivation of proto-oncogenes leading to clonal proliferation
Activation of Helper T cell
Hodgkin lymphoma Non-Hodgkin
-young adults -adults
-lymph node biopsy
-spreads predictably -unpred.
In order to maintain the cell potential, cells must keep a low concentration of sodium ions and high levels of potassium ions within the cell (intracellular). Outside cells (extracellular), there are high concentrations of sodium and low concentrations of potassium, so diffusion occurs through ion channels in the plasma membrane. In order to keep the appropriate concentrations, the sodium-potassium pump pumps sodium out and potassium in through active transport.
sodium-potassium pump