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15 Cards in this Set

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symptoms of left sided heart failure are:
Cyanosis, orthopnea, dyspnea, coughing, wheezing, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, blood tinged sputum, tachycardia, confusion, restlessness, elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure.
Symptoms of right sided heart failure include:
fatigue, elevated venous pressure, distended jugular veins, enlarged liver and spleen anorexia & complaints of GI distress, swelling in hands and fingers, dependent edema, sloshing fluids between organs of belly.
What is the most frequent cause of right sided heart failure?
Left heart side failure.
What is Laplace's law
Laplace's law describes the relation between tension, transmural pressure, and radius. It states that wall tension is also becomes greater as the radius increases. Tension is also effected by wall thickness. the thinner the wall the greater the pressure.
Laminar blood flow
layering of blood components in the center of the bloodstream.
reduces friction and prevents clotting factors from coming in contact with vessel wall.
Turbulent blood flow
A disordered blood flow. The blood moves crosswise and lengthwise in blood vessels.
cardiac output equation
(CO) = SV x HR
SV = stroke volume
HR = heart rate
volume coming into ventricles (end diastolic pressure)
the pressure the that must be generated to pump blood out of the heart and into the aorta.
describes the physical principles governing pressure, flow, and resistance as they relate to the cardiovascular system.
stroke volume
The amount of blood pumped with each beat
heart rate
the number of times the heart beats each minute.
tunica externa
outermost covering of blood vessels.
composed of fibrous and connective tissues that support the vessel
tunica media
middle layer
largely a smooth muscle layer that constricts to regulate and control the diameter of the vessel.
tunica intima
the innermost layer
an elastic layer that joins the media and a thin layer of endothelial cells that lie adjacent to the blood.