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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are some functions of the frontal lobe?
- responsible for planning, problem solving, intellectual insight, judgement, and expression of emotion - abstract vs. concrete reasoning - concentration - decision making - purposful behavior - momry - speech organization and production - aspects of emotional response
What is the function of the temporal lobe?
- integrates and interprets somatic, visual, and auditory information - attention - aspects of sexual action and meaning - emotional modulation and interpretation - impulse and aggression control - aspects of sexual action and meaning
What are functions of the parietal lobe?
- sensory intergration and spatial relations - bodily awareness - filtration of background stimuli - memory and nonverbal memory - concept formation
What are functions of the occipital lobe?
- responsible for receiving visual information ofrom the eyes - interpretation of visual experence, such as depth perception and location
Generally, what are the functions of association areas in the brain? List 3 assoication areas.
- association areas add perception and meaning to incoming sensory information - 3 major association areas are: 1) parieto-occipitotemoral association area 2) prefrontal association area 3) limbic association area
What is the limbic system?
- a complex group of neurons that reulate emotional bejavior - communicates with higher and lower brain centers to link thoughts and autonomic nervous system responses to emotions
What structures are included in the limbic system?
- hippocampus - parahippocampal gyrus - cingulate gyrus - amygdala - fornix
What is the functions of Broca's area?
word formation
What is the function of Wernicke's area?
language comprehension
List 2 disorders of perception
hallucinations and delusional thinking
Which structure receives all sensory information from the external environment and then relays the information to various parts of the brain?
What is the definition of hallucinations?
a sensory perception that occurs without external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ
What are characteristics of delusions?
- abnormality of thought, characterized by a false felief and the persistent, unshakable acceptance of the false belief - commonly incoroporate input from multiple sensory systems
What are the steps involved in neurotransmission?
1. synthesis of a transmitter substance 2. storage and release of the transmitter 3. bining of the transmitter to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane 4. removal of the transmitter from the post-synaptic cleft
What is the source and effect of acetylcholine?
- formed in many synapses of the brain - found in high concentration in basal ganglia and motor cortex - can be excitatory or inhibitory, depending on the area of the brain - underactivity implicated in Alzheimer's disease
What is the source and effects of dopamine?
- derived from tyrosine in the substantia nigra and ventral segmental area in the midbrain - usually excitatory - overactivity of dopamine thought to be involved in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
What is the source and effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine?
- originates in the locs ceruleus in the brain stem - derived from dopamine - can be excitatory or inhibitory - underactibity thought to be involved in some depressions
What is the source and effects of serotonin?
- originates from the raphe nuceus in the brain stem - derived from tryptophan - involved in the regulation of attention and complex cognitive functions - underactivity thought to be involved in some depressions and obsessive compulsive disorder
List 4 amino acid neurotransmitters. Which are inhibitory and excitatory?
- 4 amino acid transmitters include: GABA, glutamate, aspartate, and glycine - GABA and glycine are usually inhibitory - glutamate is excitatory - implicated in anxiety disorders
What are the 2 major categories of antipsychotic agents used to treat schizophrenia?
1. typical antipsychotics - include phenothiazines, butyrophenones, and thioxanthene 2. atypical antipsychotics - clozapine
How do antipsychotic agents exert their effects?
- both categories (typical & atypical antipsychotic) block dopamine - atypical antipsychotics also block serotonin (5-HT) receptors
What is the mechanism of action of antidepressants?
antidepressants alleviate depressive symptoms by increaing the activity of norepinephrine and serotonin at postsynaptic membrane receptors
What are the 4 major categories of antidepressant?
1 monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) 2. tricyclic compounds 3. serotonin reuprake inhibitors (SRIs) 4. novel, or atypical, antidepressants
Define schizophrenia
schizophrenia refers to the disconnection between thought and language
What is the difference between positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
- positive symptoms are those that reflect the presence of abnormal behaviors - negative symptoms refelct the absence of normal social and interpersonal behaviors
Give examples of positive symptoms of schizophrenia
- disorganized, incomprehensible speech - delusions - hallucinations - grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior - neologisms (invented words) - derailment (loose associations) - tangentiality - incoherence - word salad (groups of disconnected words)
Give examples of negative symptoms of schizophrenia
- alogia (tendency to speak very little) - avolition (lack of motivation for goal-oriented activity) - apathy - affective flattening (lack of emotional expression - anhedonia (an inability to experience pleasure in things that ordinarily are pleasurable)
What are some characteristics of paranoid schizophrenia?
- manifests with persecutory or grandiose delusions - auditory hallucinations are common - interactions with others are rigid, intense, and controlled - sudden onset - negative symptoms are not prominent
What are characteristics of disorganized schizophrenia?
- disintegration of the personality and a predominance of negative symptoms - person is socially withdrawn and inept - disorganized speech - unable to complete ADLs - may have cognitive and psychomotor deficits
What are characteristics of catatonic schizophrenia?
- intense psychomotor disturbance (retardation or excitement) - extreme negativism - peculiar voluntary movements such as grimacing, posturing, echolalia (repeating what is said by another), or echopraxia (imitating the movements of others)
What are some theoretical causes of schizophrenia?
- anatomical abnormalites in the brain (enlarged ventricles, smaller thalamus & hippocampus, smaller and smoother left hemisphere) - increased density of dompamine receptor sites and dopamine overactivity - decreased activity of serotonin and glutamate
What are characteristics of depression?
- a disorder of emotion - characterized by feelings of worthlessness and guilt, decreased concentration, alterations in sleep and appetite, and possible suicidal ideation
Differentiate between unipolar and bipolar depression
- unipolar depression is characterized by a persistent unpleasant mood - bipolar depression is characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania
What are some possible causes of depression?
- anatomical abnormalities (reduction of gray matter in the prefrontal cortex, increased blood flow and oxygen consumption in the amygdala) - abnormalities of neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, serotonin, AcH, and GABA) - disturbances in the HPA axis (eratic levels of cortisol)
What are common characteristics of all anxiety disorders?
- increased, intense fearlessness - activation of the the sympathetic cascade through the HPA axis without a precipitatin potentially dangerous event
What are the 5 types of anxiety disorders?
1. panic disorder 2. post-traumatic stress disorder 3. generalized anxiety disorder 4. social phobia 5. obsessive-compulsive anxiety disorder
What are characteristics of panic disorders?
characterized by: - neurologic symptoms (dizziness, paresthesias, fainting - cardiac symptoms (chest pain, tachycardia, palpitations - respiratory symptoms (SOB, felling of smothering or choking) - psychological symptoms (feelings of impending doom, fear or dying, and a sense of unreality)
What are characteristics of generalized anxiety disorder?
- prolonged (more than 6 months) excessive worry that is not easily controlled - muscle tensions - autonomic hyperactivity - exaggerated startle response - inability to concentrate
What are characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder?
characterized by obsessions (repeated thoughts) and compulsions (repeated acts), which are attempts to reduce the acniety associated with the obsessions
What are characteristics of social anxiety disorder?
- a generalized, or specific, intense, irrational, and persistent pfear of being scrutinized or negatively evaluated by others - diagnostic criteria include: 1. anxiety when the person is exposed to the feared social situation 2. recognition that the fear is irrational 3. avoidance of the social situation 4. interference of the anxiety with the person's normal routine
What is dementia?
- a syndrome of intellectual deterioration severe enough to interfere with occupation or social performance - involve disturbances in memory, languarge use, perception, and motor skills - may interrupt the ability to learn necessary skills, solve problems, think abstractly, and make judgements
Listy 6 types of dementia
1. Alzheimer's disease 2. multi-infarct dementia 3. Pick's disease 4. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 5. Wenicke-Korsakoff syndrome 6. Huntington's chorea
What is the most common treatable illness that may masquearde as dementia?
How does the brain of a patient with Alzheimer's disease appear?
- characterized by cortical atrophy and loss of neruons, particularly in the parietal and temporal lobes - slender gyri and prominent sulci - ventricular enlargement (ie hydrocephalus with significant atrophy)
What are some the causes of Alzheimer's Disease?
- presence of amyloid-containing neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles - plaques and tangles are found throught the neocortex, hippocampus, and amygdala - decrease in choline acetyltransferase, which is required for the synthesis of AcH, activity in the cortex and hippocampus
What are classic symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?
- loss of short-term memory with denial of such memory loss - disorientation - impaired abstract thinking - apraxia (inability to perform voluntary and skillful movements) - changes in personality
Describe characteristics of the first stage of Alzheimer's
- short-term memory loss that is difficult to differentiate from normal forgetfulness - mild personality changes (lack of spontaneity, social withdrawl) - disorientation to time and date
What are characteristics of the second (or confusional stage) of Alzheimer's Disease?
- increased impairment of cognition and abstract thinking - restlessness & agitation - wandering ("sundown syndrome") - inability to perform ADLs - impaired judgement - inappropriate social behavior
What are characteristics of the 3rd stage of Alzheimer's Disease?
- incontinence - person becomes apathetic - inability to recognize family or friends
What are characteristics of vascular dementia?
- aka multi-infarct dementia - caused by multiple infarctions throughout the brain - gradual or abrupt onset - presence of focal neurologic symptoms related to local areas of infarction
What are characteristics of Pick's Disease?
- rare form of dementia characterized by atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes - neurons in affected areas contain cytoplasmic inclusions called Pick bodies - behavioral manifestations, such as absence of concern, loss of initiative, echolalia, hypotonia, and incontinence, are seen before memory deficits
What are characteristics of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease?
- a rare transmissible form of demetia caused by an infective protein agents called a prion - causes degeneration of the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems
What are characteristics of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
- most commonly results of chronic alcoholism - Wernicke's disease is characterized by acute weakness, paralysis of extraocular muscles, nystagmus, ataxia, and confusion (caused by thiamine deficiency) - Korsaoff part involves the chronic phase with severe impairment of recent memory
What are characteristics of Huntington's Disease?
- a hereditary disorder characterized by chronic progressive chorea, psychological changes, and dementia - produces localized death of brain cells, especially the caudate nucleus and putamen of the basal ganglia