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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What comprises the motor unit?
the LMN and the muscle fibers it innervates
What is the difference between pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems?
• pyramidal system consists of motor pathways originating in the motor cortex and terminating in the corticobulbar fibers in the brain stem & corticospinal fibers in the spinal cord • extrapyramidal system originates in the basal ganglia and cortex and project to the brain stem reticular formation
What parts make up the neuromuscular junction?
• consists of axon terminals of a motor neuron anda specialized region of the muscle membrane called the motor end plate
What are characteristics of Myasthenia Gravis?
• a disorder of transmission at theneuromuscular junction that affects communication between the motoneuron and the innervated muscle cell • caused by an antibody-mediated loss of AcH receptors at the neuromuscular junction • there is no loss of sensory function because the disease affects the neuromuscular junction
This is a special type of myasthenic syndrome that develops in association with neoplasms, particuarly small cell carcinoma of the lung.
Lambert-Eaton Syndome
What are common manifestations of Myasthenia Gravis?
• muscle weakness and fatigability with sustained effort • common affects the eye & periorbital muscles (ie ptosis or diplopia) • can progress to generalized muscle weakness • usually affects the proximal muscles and extremities are involved
What causes Carpal tunnel syndrome?
a compression type mononeuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve by the transverse carpal ligament
What are general causes of polyneuropathies?
• immune mechanisms (Guilliain-Barré) • toxic agents (alcohol, arsenic, lead) • metabolic diseases (DM, uremia)
Describe Guillain-Barré Syndrome?
• a subacute polyneuropathy • involves an infiltration of mononuclear cells around the capillaries of peripheral neurons, edema of the endoneurial compartment, and demyelination of ventral spinal roots
What are some viruses that have linked with Guillian-Barré syndrome?
• Campylobacter jejuni • CMV • Epstein-Barr virus
List structures of the Basal Ganglia
• Caudate & Putamen (called the striatum) • Putamen & Globus Pallidus (Lentiform Nucleus) • Subthalamic nucleus • Substanita nigra
What neurotransmitter is released from the substantia nigra?
True/False: GABA and dopamine are excitatory neurtransmitters
Both GABA and dopamine function as inhibitory neurotransmitter The correct answer is: False
Describe Parkinson Disease
• a degenerative disorder of basal ganglia function • results in variable combinations of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia
What causes Parkinson Disease?
• a progressive destruction of the nigrostriatal pathway • reduction of dopamine concentrations
What are the cardinal manifestations of Parkinson disease?
• tremor • rigidity • bradykinesia
What are the 3 classes of cerebellar dysfunction?
• vestibulocerebellar disorders • cerebellar ataxia • cerebellar tremor
What are signs of cerebellar dysfunction?
• ataxia • nystagmus • dysdiadochokinesia • dysmetria • tremors • dysphagia • dysarthria
Describe Amyotrohpic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
• neurologic disorders that affects only motor function • denervation of motorneurons leads to shrinkage of musculature and muscle fiber atrophy
What is the most common clinical presentation of ALS?
slowly progressive weakness and atrophy in distal muscles of one upper extremity
What is the most common nontraumatic cause of neurologic disability among young and middle-aged adults?
Multiple Sclerosis
What causes Multiple Sclerosis?
demyelination of nerve fibers in the white matter