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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the most common viral etiology for the common cold and rhinosinusitis?
What are the most common bacterial causes of acue rhinosinusitis?
Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae
What are the most common causes of hospital-aquired rhinosinusitis?
• S. aureus
• Pseudomonas
• Klebsiella
What is pneumonia?
inflammation of parenchymal structures of the lung, such as the alveoli and the bronchioles
What are some of the signs and symptoms of pneumonia?
• fever
• general malaise
• chest discomfort (pleuritic pain)
• cough (may be productive)
• tachypnea
• signs of hemoglobin desaturation and respiratory failure
• evidence of sepsis or shock
Differentiate between typical and atypical pneumonia
• Typical (Bacterial) pneumonia results from infection by bacteria that multiply extracellularly in the alveoli and cause inflammation and exudation of fluid into the airfilled spaces of the alveoli

• Atypical pneumonias produce patchy inflammatory changes that are confined to the alvelolar septum and the interstitium of the lung
The presence of pneumonia along with diarrhea, hyponatremia, and confusion is characteristics of what type of pneumonia?
Legionella pneumonia
What is the most common cause of viral pneumonia?
influenza virus
What is the definition of nosocomial pneumonia?
• a lower respiratory tract infection that was not present or incubating on admission to the hospital

• usually infections occurring 48-72 hours after admission
What are some of the bacterial etiologies of nosocomial pneuomonia?
• Pseudomonas aeruginosa
• S. aureus
• Enterobacter species
• Klebsiella species
• E. Coli
• Serratia
Certain types of immunologic defects tend to facvor certain types of infections. Patients with defects in humoral immunity are predisposed to what types of infections? patients w/ defects in cell-mediated immunity?
• patients w/ defects in humoral immunity are predisposed to bacterial infections (against which antibodies play an important role)

• patients w/ defects in cellular immunity are predisposed to infections caused by viruses, fungi, mycobacteria, and protozoa
What is the difference between the development of tuberculosis and pneumonia?
• pneumonia has a rapid onset (usually within 2-3 days)

• tuberculosis has a delayed onset, usually developing over months
What are some symptoms of Tuberculosis?
• cough (may be productive or hemoptysis)
• anorexia
• fever
• night sweats
What is the staining technique used to stain M. Tuberculosis?
Acid-fast staining
Why does tuberculosis have a tendency to cause disease in the upper lobes of the lung?
• the tubercle bacilli are strict aerobes that thrive in an oxygen-rich environment
• the upper lobes are the parts of the lung where the ventilation and oxygen content are the greatest
What is the most common cause of pneumonia associated with the highest morbidity/mortality in the world?
What is primary tuberculosis?
occurs in a person lacking previous contact with the tubercle bacillus
What is a Ghon's complex?
a combination of the primary lung lesion and lymph node granulomas
What is Miliary tuberculosis?
• minute lesions, resembling millet seeds, when TB erodes into a blood vessel, giving rise to hematogenic dissemination
• can involve almost any organ (ex. brain, meninges, liver, kidney, bone marrow)
What is secondary tuberculosis?
• either reinfection from inhaled droplet nuclei
• reactivation of a previously healed primary lesion
What are the primary drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis?
• R - Rifampin
• I - Isoniazid
• P - Pyrazinamide
• E - Ethambutol
What are the 2 major types of lung cancer?
• Non-small cell lung cancer
• Small cell lung cancer
What are the different types of non-small cell lung cancer?
• squamous cell
• adenocarcinoma
• large cell
Which type of lung cancer usually present as a centrally located endobronchial lesion?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancer is the most common lung cancer and is the type seen most often in non-smokers?
What are characteristic of small cell lung cancer?
• highly linked to cigarette exposure
• the most common cancer associated with paraneoplastic syndromes (such as SIADH & Cushing's syndrome)
• often presents with a large, central tumor with mediastinal involvement
What are common signs and symptoms of all types of lung cancer?
• cough
• chest pain
• hemoptysis
• radiographic evidence of a mass or pneumonia
• weight loss
Which type of lung cancer is associated with the paraneoplastic syndrome that produces hypercalcemia?
squamous cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancer is associated with the paraneoplastic syndrome that produces hypercalcemia?
squamous cell carcinoma