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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the mean arterial pressure?
the average pressure in the arterial system during ventrical contraction and relaxation
What components determine blood pressure?
• BP is determined by the cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance

BP = cardiac output x peripheral vascular resistance
What is primary hypertension?
The chronic elevation in blood pressure without evidence of other disease
What are some risk factors for hypertension?
• family history
• increasing age
• race
• insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities
What are some lifestyle factors that contribute to hypertension?
• decreased intake of potassium, calcium, and magnesium
• excess alcohol consumption
• high salt intake
• obesity
• oral contraceptive drugs
• stress
What is target organ damage?
hypertension associated complications involving:

• brain
• heart
• kidneys
• peripheral vascular
• retina
What are some drugs used in the treatment of hypertension?
• ACE inhibitors
• Angiotensin receptor blockers
• alpha 1 receptor blockers
• alpha 2 agonists
• beta-adrenergic blockers
• Calcium channel blockers
• diuretics
• vasodilators
What is the mechanism of action (MOA) of thiazide diuretics?
• inhibt Na/Cl symporter at the early distal convoluted tubule and cortical portion of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle
• increased Na, Cl, and H20 excretion
Name 4 thiazide diuretics
• Chlorthalidone
• Indapamide
• Metolazone
What is the mechanism of action of loop diuretics?
• acts primarily on the ascending loop of Henle by inhibiting the Na-K-Cl symporter
• increases Na, Cl, K, and H20 excretion in large amounts
Name 4 loop diuretics
• Furosemide (Lasix)
• Bumetanide (Bumex)
• Torsemide (Demadex)
• Ethacrynic Acid (Edecrin)
Name 4 potassium-sparing diuretics
• Amiloride
• Spironalactone
• Triameterene
• Elperelone
Which beta-blockers are nonselective?
• carvedilol
• labetalol
• nadolol
• pindolol
• propanolol
Which beta-blockers are selective?
• atenolol
• metoprolol
• acetobutolol
• bisoprolol
What are the effects of beta-blockers with ISA? Give 2 examples.
• beta-blockers with ISA lower blood pressure without reducing resting heart rate
• examples are Pindolol (nonselective) and Acetobutolol (selective)
What is MOA of calcium channel blockers?
inhibit calcium entry through voltage dependant channels
What are the 2 classifications of calcium channel blockers?
• nondihydropyridines (used for rate control as antiarrhythmics)
• dihydropyridines (used for HTN)
Name some examples of nondihydropyridines
• diltiazem
• verapamil
• nifedipine
Name examples of dihydropyridines
• amlodipine (Norvasc)
• felodipine
• nicardipine
• nisoldipine
List examples of ACE inhibitors
• Benazepril (Lotensin)
• Captopril
• Enalapril (Vasotec)
• Lisinopril (Zestril)
• Quinapril (Accupril)
• Ramipril (Altace)
• Trandolapril
Name 4 ARBs
• Losartan (Cozaar)
• Valsartan (Diovan)
• Candesartan (Atacand)
• Irbesartan (Avapro)
Name some alpha-1 receptor antagonists
• Prazosin
• Doxazosin (Cardura)
• Terazosin
Name 2 alpha-2 agonists
• Clonidine
• Methyldopa
List examples of short-acting and long-acting nitrates
• Short-acting: nitropaste, nitrodur
• Long-acting: Isordil
What are some causes of secondary hypertension?
• adrenal corticoal disorders (hyperaldosteronism)
• coarctation of the aorta
• gestational HTN
• kidney disease
• pheochromocytoma
• sleep apnea
What are the 2 major types of renovascular disease that causes secondary hypertension?
• renal artery stenosis
• fibromuscular dysplasia: a hyperplasia of the renal pelvis that obstructs renal blood flow
What are signs and symptoms of pheochromocytoma?
• headache (most common)
• marked variability in blood pressure
• nervousness
• tremor
• weakness
What is malignant hypertension?
• sudden marked elevations in blood pressure
• diastolic values above 120 mm Hg
• complicated by evidence of acute or rapidly progressive life-threatening organ dysfunction