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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which infectious agents are the smallest obligate intracellular pathogens?
What are some examples of latent viruses?
• Herpesvirus
• Adenovirus
What is the mechanism of replication of retroviruses, like HIV?
• after entry into host cell, the viral RNA genome is first translated into DNA by reverse transcriptase
• viral DNA is integrated into the host chromosome & exists in a latent state until reactivation and replication
What infectious agents are autonomously replicating unicellular organisms that lack an organized nucleus, generally contain nonorganized intracellular organelles, and their genome consists of a single chromosome of DNA?
What are plasmids?
• smaller extrachromosomal pieces of circular DNA
• found in many bacteria
What is peptidoglycan?
• a cell wall, produced by most bacteria, composed of a distinctive polymer
• only produced by prokaryotes
• often a target for antimicrobial therapy
• found in gram-positive bacteria
How does the microscopic morphology of streptococci and stahpylococci differ?
• streptococci divide and appear in chains
• staphylococci divide and appear in clusters
What is the difference between aerobes, anaerobes, and facultatively anaerobic bacteria?
• Aerobes require oxygen for growth & metabolism
• Anaerobes cannot survive in an oxygen-containing environment
• Facultatively anaerobic organisms are capable of adapting its metabolism to aerobic or anaerobic condition
List examples of gram-positive organisms
• Bacillus Cereus (B. Cereus)
• Clostridium
• Corynebacterium
• Enterococcus
• Listeria
• Staphylococcus
• Streptococcus
List examples of gram-negative bacteria
• Campylobacter
• E. Coli
• H. Flu
• Klebsiella
• Legionella
• Moraxcella (M. Catarrhalis)
• Neisseria (N. Gonnarrhoeae, N. Meningitidis)
• Proteus
• Pseudomonas
• Serratia
• Shigella
Give some examples of acid-fast organisms
• Corynebacterium
• Mycobacterium tuberculosis
• Nocardia (N. asteroides, N. braziliensis)
What are characteristics of spirochetes?
• gram-negative rods with a helical shape
• move via corkscrew-type motion
• can be anaerobic or gacultatively anaerobic
What are the 3 genera of spirochetes?
• Borrelia
• Leptospira
• Treponema
What is organism causes syphillis?
Treponema pallidum
What are characteristics of Mycoplasmas?
• smaller and contain less DNA than bacteria

• do not produce a rigid peptidoglycan cell wall » variable cell appearance

• resistant to cell wall-inhibiting antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins
What are the 3 genera of mycoplasmas?
• Myocplasma
• Ureaplasma
• Acholeplasma (does not require cholesterol to produce cell membrane)
Name and describe the 2 groups of fungi
• Yeasts: single-celled organisms that reproduce by budding
• Molds: produce long, hollow, branching filaments called hypae
What is mycelium?
cotton-like or powdery colonies composed of mats of hyphae
List examples of fungi
• Aspergillus
• Blastomycosis
• Candida
• Cryptococcus
• Dermatophytes (ie ringworm, Athelete's foot)
• Histoplasmosis
• Monaliasis
Name and give examples of the general types of parasites
• Protozoa (Trichomonas, Malaria, Giardia)
• Helminths (roundworms, tapeworms, trematodes)
• Arthropods (ticks, scabies, lice, fleas)
What are different portals of entry for pathogens?
• Direct contact
• Ingestion
• Inhalation
• Penetration
What is a congenital infection and list the most frequently observed congenital infections?
• parasites (Toxoplasma gondii)
• syphillis
• rubella
• group B streptococci
What is the most common cause of congenital infection in the US?
What is achlorhydria and how does it affect susceptibility for infection?
• Achlorhydria is reduced gastric acidity due to disease or medication
• are more susceptible to infection
Name and describe the 5 stages of disease
• Incubation stage: pathogen begins active replication w/out producing recognizable symptoms
• Prodromal stage: initial appearance of symptoms (vague symptoms like fever, headache, myalgia, fatigue)
• Acute stage: maximum impact of infection
• Convalescent stage: containment, progressive elimination, and resolution of symptoms
• Resolution: total elimination of a pathogen w/out residual signs or symptoms of disease
What is the agent that causes lyme disease?
Borrelia burgdorferi
What is the agent that causes typhoid fever?
Salmonella typhi
What are the 4 categories of viral factors?
• Toxins
• Adhesion factors
• Evasive factors
• Invasive factors
What are the 2 main types of bacterial toxins?
Exotoxins and endotoxins
What are enterotoxins?
bacterial exotoxins that produce vomiting and diarrhea
What are characteristics of endotoxins?
• complex molecules composed of lupopolysaccharide
• found in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria
• can induce fever, hypotension, shock, clotting, bleeding, & inflammation
Generally, during what phase of the infectious process is IgM and IgG produced?
• IgM-specific antibodies generally rise and fall during the acute phase of disease
• IgG antibodies increases during the acute phase & remains elevated until or beyond resolution
What are the 4 basic mechanisms of action of antibiotics?
• interference with cell wall synthesis
• inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis
• interruption of nucleic acid synthesis
• interference with normal metabolism
What family of drugs interfere with cell wall synthesis?
• Carbapenem
• Cephalosporins
• Monobactams
• Penicillins
What families of drugs interfere with ribosomes (protein synthesis)?
• Aminoglycosides
• Glycopeptides
• Macrolides
• Miscellaneous (Chloramphenical, Rifampin)
• Oxazolidinone
• Streptogramin
• Tetracyclines
What family of drugs interrupt nucleic acid synthesis?
• fluoroquinolones
• nalidixic acid
What family of drugs interfere with normal metabolism (or folic acid synthesis)?
• sulfonamides
• trimethoprim
What is the function of ß-lactamases on certain antibiotics?
ß-lactamases are enzymes that can inactivate ß-lactame antimicrobial agents (such as PCN and Cephalosporins)
What are side effects of aminoglycosides?
• hearing loss (ototoxicity)
• nephrotoxicity)
Which drugs can cause liver or bone marrow toxicity?
• Chloramphenicol
• Fluoroquinolones
What is the mechanism of action of nuceloside inhibitors?
• inhibit the viral DNA polyermease, preventing duplication of the viral genome
• for AIDS treatment, they target the HIV-specific enzyme, reverse transcriptase, for inhibition
What is the MOA of protease inhibitors?
inhibit an HIV-specific enzyme (protease) that is necessary for late maturation evetnts in the virus life cycle
What are the two main classes of antifungal agents?
• Polyene family
• Imidazole class
What is the MOA of the polyene family and list some names of drugs in that class?
• MOA: bind to ergosterol (found on fungal membranes) and form holes, causing leaking of cell contents and cell lysis
• ex: Amphotericin B, nystatin
What is the MOA of imidazoles and list some examples of imidazoles?
• MOA: inhibitis the synthesisi of ergosterol, damaging the intergrity of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane
• ex: clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole
List examples of aminoglycosides
• gentomycin
• neomycin
• streptomycin
• tobramycin
List examples of fluroquinolones (FQs)
• Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
• Levofluxacin (Levaquin)
• Gatifloxacin (Tequin)
List examples of macrolides
• azithromycin
• clarithromycin
• erythromycin
List the penicillin "condom" drugs
• cloxacillin
• oxacillin
• nafcillin
• dicloxacillin
• methicillin
List examples of 1º cephalosporins
• cefazolin (Ancef)
• cefadroxil (Duricef)
• cephadrine (Velosef)
• cephlexin (Keflex)
What are indications for using 1º cephalosporins?
• good for skin and soft tissue infection
• Cephazolin (Ancef) for pre-operative procedures
• good for gram-positive bacteria (has some activity for gram-negative)
List examples of 2º cephalosporins
• Cefotetan
• cefoxitin
• Cefraxine
• Cefactor
List examples of 3º cephalosporins
• Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
• Ceftazidime

* good for gram-negative
List examples of beta-lactamase inhibitors
• clavulanic acid
• sulfactam
What is augmentin?
clavulanic acid + amoxicillin