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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the structures that control posture and movement?
The system consist of the:

Motor cortex
Basal ganglia
spinal cord
neuromuscular unit
where do UMNs originate and where do they end up?
they project from the cerebral cortex, cross at the pyramidal decussation and end at the ventral horn where they synapse with LMNs
What is the motor cortex and what does it do?
It consists of the primary, premotor, and supplementary motor cortex
controls delicate, skillful, intentional movements of limb muscles and the speech apparatus
where is the motor cortex?
in the posterior part of the frontal lobe
which muscles have the largest representation in the primary motor cortex according to the motor homunculus
muscles of the hands, facial expression and of speech because they require the greatest dexterity
what is the extrapyramidal system
originates in the basal ganglia, does not cross over in the pyramids; involved in more crude, supportive movements
what part of the brain does the anterior cerbral artery perfuse?
much of the medial surface of the frontal lobe
what type of paralysis results from UMN lesions?
spastic paralysis and increased muscle tone
what type of paralysis results from LMN lesions?
flaccid paralysis and decreased or absent muscle tone
this syndrome caused by autoimmune mechanisms causes demyelination of ventral spinal roots and leads to progressive ascending muscle weakness of the limbs and symmetric flaccid paralysis
Guillain-Barre syndrome
name the subcortical nuclei involve in the control of movement, cognitive and perception functions
Basal ganglia
this structure is part of the basal ganglia, contains melanin and produces dopamine
substantia nigra
a problem with the substantia nigra can result in this disease
Parkinson's (paralysis agitans) due to decreased dopamine levels in the striatum (putamen and caudate)
the putamen and the globus pallidus make up a wedge shaped region called?
The lentiform nucleus
This system relays information on touch, temp, pain, and body position
The somatosensory system
this disease leads to the death of LMNs and subsequent muscle atrophy and imparts sclerosis to CNS tissue
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or Lou Gehrig's disease
this disease involves demyelination of nerve fibers and formation of plaques in the white matter of the brain spinal cord and optic nerve
Multiple sclerosis
This pathway is an ascending system for rapid transmission of sensation that relate joint movement, body position, vibration and delicate touch.
the discriminative pathway
name the 3 neurons used by the discriminative pathway to relay sensory information
dorsal root ganglion neuron
dorsal column neuron
which pathway enables you to differentiate between a fork and a knife on the basis of feel?
the discriminative pathway
where is the primary sensory cortex located?
Posterior to the central sulcus on the parietal lobe
where is pain information perceived and interpreted?
in the somatosensory cortex
this tract is involved in slower transmission of dull, aching and diffused pain
the paleospinothalamic tract
this tract sends sharp-fast pain info to the thalamus
the neospinothalamic tract