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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
the nephron
What is the main function of angiotensin-converting enzyme?
It catalyzes the conversion of Angiotensin I to Angio II.
Name a potent vasoconstrictor, that acts directly on the kidneys to decrease salt and water excretion, and also stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal gland?
Angiotensin II.
What are the values for normal sodium levels?
135-145 mEq/L
What are the normal Chloride values?
98-106 mEq/L
What are the normal values for Co2 content?
24-29 mEq/L
Normal values for Calcium?
8.5-10.5 mg/dL
Normal values for Phosphate levels?
2.5-4.5 mg/dL
What is GFR and how is it measured?
a gauge of renal function and can be measured by creatinine levels in the blood or urine.
the major organ responsible for regulating pH
what is the main function of renin
enzyme that converts angiotensinogen to angio I
where is renin synthesized and stored?
in the Juxtaglomerular cells
what are the endocrine functions of the kidney
control of BP thru RAAS
calcium metabolism by activating vitamin D
regulatin RBC production thru synthesis of erythropeietin
normal BUN levels
8-20 mg/dL
normal Creatinine levels
0.6-102 mg/dL
normal K levels
3.5-5 mEq/L
what causes increased BUN levels
GI bleed and increased protein intake and loss of renal function
humoral substances that vasoconstric the renal vessels
angiotensinogen II, ADH and endothelins
what is the function of the glomerulus
filtration of blood plasma to form urine
where does the distal convoluted tubule begin
where the tubule meets with the juxtaglomerular complex
In the nephron tubules, which substances are passively absorbed
Water and urea; all others use secondary active transport mechanisms
where does the majority of reabsorption take place?
in the proximal tubule
which loop of of henle is highly permeable to water
descending loop
in which loop do Loop Diuretics work on?
ascending loop
Briefly Describe the importance of the JGA.
synthesizes and stores renin; regulates the release as needed, in conditions such as hypovolemia and increased sympathetic stimulation
a decrease in bile flow through the intrahepatic canaliculi
What happens if the liver fails to produce bile salts?
malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins.
What happens if the liver fails to eliminate bilirubin
There is elevation in serum and bilirubin and jaundice
What happens if the liver fails to metabolize glucocorticoids?
possible Cushing's syndrome
What happens if the liver fails to metabolize aldosterone?
sodium retention and hypokalemia
What happens if the liver fails to metabolize carbs?
hypoglycemia may develop when glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis are impaired
what happens if the liver fails to deaminate proteins and form urea from
elevated blood ammonia levels
what happens when the liver fails to synthesize plasma proteins?
one manifestation would be edema formation from the lack of albunim which contributes to osmotic pressure
What is the blood supply to the liver?
Hepatic artery and the portal vein.
what products are synthesized by the liver
fats, glucose and plasma proteins
functions of bile
excretory vehicle for bilirubin, cholesterol and products of organic metabolism; contains bile salts essential for absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins
what hormones are produced in the Islets of Langerhans and are secreted directly into the blood
organs drained by the portal vein
stomach, spleen, pancreas, small and large intestines
what is the functional unit of the liver?
the lobules
how is urea formed?
the liver changes ammonia produced by deamination of amino acids to urea
Name the functional units of the liver
metabolic functions of the liver
produces bile, metabolizes hormones and drugs, synthesizes proteins, glucose and clotting factors, stores vitamins and minerals, changes ammonia produced by deaminatin fo A.A. to urea and coverts fatty acids to ketones.
Early manifestations of cirrhosis
weight loss, weakness, anorexia, diarrhea, constipation, jaundice
Late manifestations of cirrhosis
related to portal HTN and liver cell failure. Splenomegaly associated with ascites.
usually secondary to scleroderma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, RA; with an insidious onset and progressive scarring and destruction of liver tissue/ small intraphepatic bile ducts and portal inflammation. MC in women.
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
Early manifestations of biliary cirrhosis
unexplained pruritus, weight loss, fatigue, followed by dark urine and pale stools. Elevated serum alkaline phosphate levels.
Late manifestations of biliary cirrhosis
jaundice, + other signs of liver failure.
precipitated by a fatty meal and may iniate w/ complaints of indigestion
what are the 2 ducts of the pancreas?
Duct of Wirsung-functional
Duct of Santorini-non-functional
manisfestations of portal HTN
ascites, splenomegaly, Caput medusae, esophageal varices
What does intrinsic factor do?
produced by the parietal cells of the stomach; necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 later on in the small intestine
what's the role of histamine in digestion
increases grastic acid secretions
This is a protease found in pancreatic juice; it breaks down proteins
what is pepsin
digestive protease released by chief cells in the stomach.
how is bilirubin formed?
from senescent red blood cells. it gives bile its' color